FcαR & HLA class II
This gene is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily and encodes a receptor for the Fc region of IgA. The receptor is a transmembrane glycoprotein present on the surface of myeloid lineage cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils, where it mediates immunologic responses to pathogens. It interacts with IgA-opsonized targets and triggers several immunologic defense processes, including phagocytosis, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and stimulation of the release of inflammatory mediators. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.
HLA-DRB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DRA) and a beta chain (DRB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa. It is encoded by 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide; exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains; exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain; and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DR molecule the beta chain contains all the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities. Hundreds of DRB1 alleles have been described and typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. DRB1 is expressed at a level five times higher than its paralogs DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. DRB1 is present in all individuals. Allelic variants of DRB1 are linked with either none or one of the genes DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. There are 4 related pseudogenes: DRB2, DRB6, DRB7, DRB8 and DRB9.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Clinical Use.