CD38 & CD3
CD antigen CD38 is also known as ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1, which belongs to the ADP-ribosyl cyclase family. CD38 is expressed at high levels in pancreas, liver, kidney, brain, testis, ovary, placenta, malignant lymphoma and neuroblastoma. CD38 is a multifunctional ectoenzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and hydrolysis of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-ribose. These reaction products are essential for the regulation of intracellular Ca2+. The loss of CD38 function is associated with impaired immune responses, metabolic disturbances, and behavioral modifications. The CD38 protein is a marker of cell activation. It has been connected to HIV infection, leukemias, myelomas, solid tumors, type II diabetes mellitus and bone metabolism. CD38 has been used as a prognostic marker in leukemia.
In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T-cell co-receptor is a protein complex and is composed of four distinct chains. In mammals, the complex contains a CD3γ chain, a CD3δ chain, and two CD3ε chains. These chains associate with a molecule known as the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the ζ-chain to generate an activation signal in T lymphocytes. The TCR, ζ-chain, and CD3 molecules together comprise the TCR complex.
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