Toxin A and toxin B are both members of the large clostridial glucosylating toxin family, which also includes lethal toxin (TcsL) and hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH) from Clostridium sordellii, alpha toxin (TcnA) from Clostridium novyi and TpeL from Clostridium perfringens. The toxins are very large, being between 250 and 308 kDa in size, and have a high degree of sequence identity. Both toxin A and toxin B are proinflammatory and cytotoxic, causing disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and impairment of tight junctions in human intestinal epithelial cells, with resulting fluid accumulation and extensive damage to the large intestine.

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