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Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers

Representative Biomarkers Full List of Biomarkers Tested Data-Supported Products

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality globally, characterized by significant heterogeneity at both clinical and molecular levels. It arises through a complex interplay of genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to the transformation of normal colorectal epithelial cells into cancerous cells. The incidence and mortality rates of CRC vary widely across different regions of the world, closely related to socioeconomic factors and healthcare access. Advances in early detection, diagnostic techniques, and targeted therapies have contributed to a decrease in CRC mortality rates over recent years. Molecular biomarkers play a crucial role in improving the management of CRC, enabling personalized treatment approaches and providing insights into cancer prognosis and therapeutic efficacy.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) stages and development Figure 1 Colorectal cancer (CRC) stages and development. (Hossain, 2022)

Representative Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer


Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is a secretory protein that acts as an antagonist to the Wnt signaling pathway, crucial in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is particularly complex due to its involvement in both tumor suppression and promotion, depending on the context. In CRC, abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a hallmark, and Dkk1's function is closely tied to this pathway. Research indicates that Dkk1 expression can be altered in CRC, affecting tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis. High levels of Dkk1 expression have been observed to inhibit CRC cell invasion and metastasis in some studies, suggesting a potential tumor-suppressive role. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Dkk1's diverse effects in CRC and other cancers are multifaceted, involving epigenetic modifications, interactions with other signaling pathways, and the tumor microenvironment. Thus, Dkk1's role in CRC is dual, with potential implications for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy, highlighting the complexity of cancer biology and the need for targeted therapeutic approaches.

Recommended Human Anti-DKK1 mAb (CAT#: TAB-214CL)
Figure 2 Anti-Human DKK1 Therapeutic Antibody (TAB-214CL) in ELISA
Figure 2 ELISA analysis of TAB-214CL was performed by coating with human DKK1 protein (His tag). Then blocked with BSA and incubated with TAB-214CL. The HRP-conjugated goat anti-Human IgG was used as a secondary antibody (1: 2000). Detection was performed using TMB substrate and stopped with sulfuric acid. The absorbances were read on a spectrophotometer at 450 nm.


TPSAB1, or tryptase alpha/beta 1, encodes a member of the serine protease family, specifically the mast cell tryptases, which are predominantly expressed in mast cells. These enzymes play a crucial role in the immune system's response to pathogens and in inflammatory conditions. In the context of cancer, TPSAB1 has garnered interest for its dual roles: on one hand, it contributes to the tumor microenvironment's remodeling, fostering conditions that can facilitate tumor growth and metastasis by breaking down extracellular matrix components and stimulating angiogenesis. On the other hand, the immune response mediated by tryptase can also exert anti-tumor activities, depending on the type and stage of cancer. The balance between these pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic roles of TPSAB1 in cancer is complex and subject to ongoing research, highlighting the enzyme as a potential therapeutic target or biomarker for cancer prognosis and treatment strategies.

Recommended Mouse Anti-TPSAB1 mAb (CAT#: MOB-0097F)
Figure 3 Mouse Anti-TPSAB1 Recombinant Antibody (MOB-0097F) in IHC
Figure 3 Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded stomach. 1. The antibody is diluted 1:200 (overnight at 4°C). 2. Citric acid, pH 6.0 is used for antigen retrieval. 3. Dilute the secondary antibody at 1:200 (room temperature, 30min).
Recommended Mouse Anti-TPSAB1 mAb (CAT#: MOB-0098F)
Figure 4 Mouse Anti-TPSAB1 Recombinant Antibody (MOB-0098F) in IHC
Figure 4 Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded uterus. 1. The antibody is diluted 1:200 (overnight at 4°C). 2. Use pH 6.0 citrate buffer for antigen retrieval. 3. Dilute the secondary antibody at 1:200 (room temperature, 30min).


Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), commonly known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), is a glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion and is highly expressed in gastrointestinal tissues. It plays a crucial role in embryonic development, immune response modulation, and cellular signaling. CEACAM5 is overexpressed in various carcinomas, including colorectal, breast, and lung cancers, making it a valuable biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. Its elevated levels are associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and poor clinical outcomes, as it can promote cancer cell invasion, immune evasion, and angiogenesis. Consequently, CEACAM5 has been targeted for therapeutic interventions, including monoclonal antibodies and cancer vaccines, aiming to inhibit its function and enhance anti-tumor immunity. This dual role of CEACAM5 underscores its significance in cancer biology, serving both as a marker for cancer detection and a potential target for cancer therapy.

Recommended Mouse Anti-CEACAM5 mAb (CAT#: ZG-0391F)
Figure 5 Mouse Anti-CEACAM5 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0391F) in ELISA
Figure 5 ELISA analysis of ZG-0391F was performed by coating with human CEACAM5 Protein.
Recommended Mouse Anti-CEACAM5 mAb (CAT#: ZG-0067J)
Figure 6 Mouse Anti-CEACAM5 Recombinant Antibody (clone 1E2) in IHC
Figure 6 IHC staining of human colon cancer tissue, diluted at 1:200.IHC staining of human colon cancer tissue, diluted at 1:200.
Recommended Mouse Anti-CEACAM5 mAb (CAT#: ZG-0068J)
Figure 7 Mouse Anti-CEACAM5 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0068J) in IHC
Figure 7 Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Colon carcinoma-high magnification. 1. Antibody was diluted at 1:200 (4°C overnight). 2, TRISEDTA of pH8.0 was used for antigen retrieval. 3, Secondary Antibody was diluted at 1:200 (room temperature, 30min).

Full List of Bladder Cancer Biomarkers

Biomarker Alternative Names Gene ID UniProt ID Roles
AOC3AOC3; amine oxidase, copper containing 3; HPAO; SSAO; VAP1; VAP-1; membrane primary amine oxidase; copper amine oxidase; placenta copper monamine oxidase; semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase; amine oxidase, copper containing 3 (vascular adhesion protein8639Q16853This gene encodes a member of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase family. Copper amine oxidases catalyze the oxidative conversion of amines to aldehydes in the presence of copper and quinone cofactor. The encoded protein is localized to the cell surface, has adhesive properties as well as monoamine oxidase activity, and may be involved in leukocyte trafficking. Alterations in levels of the encoded protein may be associated with many diseases, including diabetes mellitus. A pseudogene of this gene has been described and is located approximately 9-kb downstream on the same chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
ATAD2ATPase Family, AAA Domain Containing 2; AAA Nuclear Coregulator Cancer-Associated Protein; ANCCA; EC; PRO2000; CT13729028A0A024R9G7A large family of ATPases has been described, whose key feature is that they share a conserved region of about 220 amino acids that contains an ATP-binding site. The proteins that belong to this family either contain one or two AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) domains. AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes. The protein encoded by this gene contains two AAA domains, as well as a bromodomain.
CEACAM5CEACAM-5; CD66e; CEA; Meconium antigen 1001048P06731This gene encodes a cell surface glycoprotein that represents the founding member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of proteins. The encoded protein is used as a clinical biomarker for gastrointestinal cancers and may promote tumor development through its role as a cell adhesion molecule. Additionally, the encoded protein may regulate differentiation, apoptosis, and cell polarity. This gene is present in a CEA family gene cluster on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
DKK1DKK-1; SK22943O94907This gene encodes a member of the dickkopf family of proteins. Members of this family are secreted proteins characterized by two cysteine-rich domains that mediate protein-protein interactions. The encoded protein binds to the LRP6 co-receptor and inhibits beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. This gene plays a role in embryonic development and may be important in bone formation in adults. Elevated expression of this gene has been observed in numerous human cancers and this protein may promote proliferation, invasion and growth in cancer cell lines.
GRNGRN; PEPI; CLN11; Granulin; Proepithelin; PCDGF; Granulins; Granulin-Epithelin; GP88; PC Cell-Derived Growth Factor; Acrogranin; PGRN; GEP; Progranulin2896P28799Granulins have possible cytokine-like activity. They may play a role in inflammation, wound repair, and tissue remodeling
MFAP3LMFAP3L; Human MFAP3L9848O75121
PDGFRLPDGFRL; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-Like Protein; PDGRL; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-Like; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Beta-Like Tumor Suppressor; PDGFR-Like Protein5157Q15198This gene encodes a protein with significant sequence similarity to the ligand binding domain of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta. Mutations in this gene, or deletion of a chromosomal segment containing this gene, are associated with sporadic hepatocellular carcinomas, colorectal cancers, and non-small cell lung cancers. This suggests this gene product may function as a tumor suppressor.
PSG2CEA; PSG1; PSBG25670P11465Molecular cloning and analysis of several PSG genes has indicated that the PSGs form a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Members of the CEA family consist of a single N domain, with structural similarity to the immunoglobulin variable domains, followed by a variable number of immunoglobulin constant-like A and/or B domains.
REG4Regenerating Family Member 4; Gastrointestinal Secretory Protein; Regenerating Islet-Derived Family, Member 4; Regenerating Islet-Derived Protein IV; Regenerating Gene Type IV; REG-Like Protein; Reg IV;83998Q9BYZ8Reg protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent lectin superfamily, according to the structure of the encoded proteins, Reg family can be divided into four subtypes, i.e. I, II, III, IV type, they have similar gene structure, contain 5 introns and 6 exons, the TATA box and CCAAT box located at 27 and 100bp encoding 158-175 amino acids in length, ranging from a secreted protein upstream of the transcription start site.
SAA1Serum Amyloid A1; SAA; Tumor Protein P53 Inducible Protein 4; Serum Amyloid A-1 Protein; Serum Amyloid A Protein; TP53I4; PIG4; SAA26288P0DJI8This gene encodes a member of the serum amyloid A family of apolipoproteins. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protein. This protein is a major acute phase protein that is highly expressed in response to inflammation and tissue injury. This protein also plays an important role in HDL metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. High levels of this protein are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease and Crohn's disease. This protein may also be a potential biomarker for certain tumors. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
TPSAB1Tryptase Alpha/Beta 1; Tryptase Alpha II; Tryptase Alpha-1; Tryptase Beta I; Tryptase-III; EC; Tryptase-I; Tryptase-1; TPSB1; TPS17177Q15661Tryptases comprise a family of trypsin-like serine proteases, the peptidase family S1. Tryptases are enzymatically active only as heparin-stabilized tetramers, and they are resistant to all known endogenous proteinase inhibitors. Several tryptase genes are clustered on chromosome 16p13.3. These genes are characterized by several distinct features. They have a highly conserved 3' UTR and contain tandem repeat sequences at the 5' flank and 3' UTR which are thought to play a role in regulation of the mRNA stability. These genes have an intron immediately upstream of the initiator Met codon, which separates the site of transcription initiation from protein coding sequence. This feature is characteristic of tryptases but is unusual in other genes. The alleles of this gene exhibit an unusual amount of sequence variation, such that the alleles were once thought to represent two separate genes, alpha and beta 1. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells; whereas in basophils, alpha tryptases predominate. Tryptases have been implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic and inflammatory disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
YWHAZHEL4; YWHAD; KCIP-1; HEL-S-3; POPCHAS; HEL-S-93; 14-3-3-zeta7534P63104This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse, rat and sheep orthologs. The encoded protein interacts with IRS1 protein, suggesting a role in regulating insulin sensitivity. Several transcript variants that differ in the 5' UTR but that encode the same protein have been identified for this gene.

Tested Data-Supported Products Targeting Bladder Cancer Biomarkers

  1. Hossain, Md Sanower, et al. "Colorectal cancer: a review of carcinogenesis, global epidemiology, current challenges, risk factors, preventive and treatment strategies." Cancers 14.7 (2022): 1732.

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