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Breast Cancer Biomarkers

Representative Biomarkers Full List of Biomarkers Tested Data-Supported Products

Breast cancer, a leading cause of global mortality primarily affecting females, is characterized by its heterogeneous nature, manifesting in six distinct molecular subtypes. These subtypes include luminal A (characterized by PR+, ER+, HER2-, and Ki67), luminal B (ER+, HER2+/-, and Ki67+), HER2-positive, basal-like (ER-, PR-, HER2-), normal breast-like, and claudin-low types with low expression of cellular adhesion genes. These breast cancer groups are distinct at genomic, transcriptomic, protein, and morphologic levels. Breast tumors are composed of intricate networks of cancerous cells and the surrounding tissue that resembles an ecosystem. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), progesterone receptor (PR), and estrogen receptor (ER) are biomarkers that are widely used in clinical practice to assess prognosis and forecast medication response.

Breast cancer biomarkers at key points during disease progression Figure 1 Breast cancer biomarkers at key points during disease progression. (Hacking, 2022)

Representative Biomarkers of Breast Cancer

Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)

HER2, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, is a protein encoded by the ERBB2 gene, playing a key role in the development of breast cancer. It is part of the family of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and is involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. HER2 is overexpressed in approximately 15-20% of breast cancers, a condition known as HER2-positive breast cancer. This overexpression is due to the amplification of the HER2 gene. HER2-positive breast cancers are typically more aggressive and have a higher recurrence rate compared to HER2-negative cancers.

Recommended Mouse Anti-HER2 mAb (CAT#: MOB-014LC)
Breast cancer biomarkers at key points during disease progression
Figure 2 Western blot analysis of MOB-014LC was performed by loading Recombinant Human ERBB2 Protein (lane 1, Non-Reducing Antigen, 0.2μg; lane 2, Reducing Antigen, 0.2μg) onto a 12% Tris-HCl polyacrylamide gel.
Recommended Anti-HER2 mAb (Trastuzumab) (CAT#: TAB-053)
Breast cancer biomarkers at key points during disease progression
Figure 3 ELISA analysis of TAB-053 was performed by coating with human ErbB2 protein.
Recommended Anti-HER2 mAb (Margetuximab) (CAT#: TAB-761)
Breast cancer biomarkers at key points during disease progression
Figure 4 The affinity of Anti-ERBB2 Therapeutic Antibody (Margetuximab) (TAB-761) was determined by SPR. Captured TAB-761 on CM5 Chip via Anti-Human IgG (Fc) can bind Human ERBB2 protein with an affinity constant of 1.21 nM as determined in a SPR assay (Biacore 8K).

Progesterone Receptor (PR)

Progesterone receptor (PR), which is activated by the hormone progesterone, is a crucial component in the regulation of breast tissue. It plays a vital role in breast development and the menstrual cycle. PR can influence cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, impacting tumor progression and response to treatment. In the context of breast cancer, PR status is a significant factor. PR-positive breast cancers are generally more responsive to hormonal therapies and often have a better prognosis compared to PR-negative cancers. The presence of PR indicates a functional estrogen receptor (ER) pathway, as PR expression is induced by estrogen. This relationship is critical because it suggests that ER-positive/PR-positive breast cancers are more likely to respond to anti-estrogen therapies.

Recommended Mouse Anti-PR mAb (CAT#: MOB-0216F)
Recommended Mouse Anti-PR mAb
Figure 5 Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded rat testis tissue. 1. PR Monoclonal Antibody (Z15) 1:200 dilution. 2. Sodium citrate pH 6.0 is used for antibody repair. 3. Dilute the secondary antibody at 1:200. The negative control is only used by the secondary antibody.
Recommended Mouse Anti-PR mAb (CAT#: MOB-0216F)
Recommended Mouse Anti-PR mAb
Figure 6 Immunofluorescence analysis of human appendix tissue. 1. PR monoclonal antibody (Z15) (red) is diluted 1:200 (4°C, overnight). 2. The Cy3 labeled secondary antibody was diluted 1:300 (room temperature, 50 minutes). 3. Picture B: DAPI (blue) for 10 minutes. A: Goal. B: DAPI. C: The merger of A+B.

Estrogen Receptor (ER)

The Estrogen Receptor (ER) is a protein found in certain cells, including breast cells, that can bind with estrogen, a hormone. Its primary role is to regulate gene expression when activated by estrogen. In breast cancer, ER plays a significant role in the development and progression of the disease, particularly in ER-positive breast cancers, which account for about 70% of all breast cancer cases. In these cancers, the presence of estrogen triggers the ER to promote the growth and survival of cancer cells. This understanding has led to targeted therapies, such as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors, which either block the ER or reduce estrogen production, respectively.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), part of the ErbB receptor family, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays a key role in cell growth and differentiation. It is overexpressed in certain subtypes of breast cancer, including triple-negative and inflammatory breast cancer, indicating its potential as a therapeutic target. EGFR is involved in the activation of various downstream signaling pathways like PI3 kinase and Ras-Raf-MAPK, which contribute to cell proliferation, adhesion, motility, and survival. EGFR's role in breast cancer is significant as its overexpression or gene amplification is associated with aggressive tumor characteristics and poor prognosis.

Recommended Rabbit Anti-EGFR mAb (CAT#: ZG-0644J)
Immunohistochemical image of this product diluted at 1:100 and staining in paraffin-embedded human placenta tissue performed on a Leica BondTM system.
Figure 7 Immunohistochemical image of this product diluted at 1:100 and staining in paraffin-embedded human placenta tissue performed on a Leica BondTM system.
Recommended Rabbit Anti-EGFR mAb (CAT#: ZG-0365U)
Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using EGFR (Phospho-Tyr1173) Antibody. High pressure and high temperature sodium citrate pH 6.0 for antigen retrieval.
Figure 8 Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human lung carcinoma using EGFR (Phospho-Tyr1173) Antibody. High pressure and high temperature sodium citrate pH 6.0 for antigen retrieval.
Recommended Anti-HER2 mAb (Margetuximab) (CAT#: TAB-761)
Membranous and cytoplasmic EGFR expression in the colorectal adenocarcinoma. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded human tissue (4 μm section) stained with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody.
Figure 9 Membranous and cytoplasmic EGFR expression in the colorectal adenocarcinoma. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded human tissue (4 μm section) stained with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody.

Full List of Breast Cancer Biomarkers

Biomarker Alternative Names Gene ID UniProt ID Roles
AGR2 Anterior Gradient 2, Protein Disulphide Isomerase Family Member; Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family A, Member 17; Secreted Cement Gland Protein XAG-2 Homolog; HAG-2; AG-2; HPC8; AG2; Anterior Gradient 2 Homolog (Xenopus Laevis); Anterior Gradient Protein 2 Homolog 10551 O95994 This gene encodes a member of the disulfide isomerase (PDI) family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins that catalyze protein folding and thiol-disulfide interchange reactions. The encoded protein has an N-terminal ER-signal sequence, a catalytically active thioredoxin domain, and a C-terminal ER-retention sequence. This protein plays a role in cell migration, cellular transformation and metastasis and is as a p53 inhibitor. As an ER-localized molecular chaperone, it plays a role in the folding, trafficking, and assembly of cysteine-rich transmembrane receptors and the cysteine-rich intestinal gylcoprotein mucin. This gene has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease and cancer progression. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]
AIM2 Absent In Melanoma 2; Interferon-Inducible Protein AIM2; PYHIN4 911829 Q05320 AIM2 is a member of the IFI20X /IFI16 family. It plays a putative role in tumorigenic reversion and may control cell proliferation. Interferon-gamma induces expression of AIM2.
ATAD2 ATPase Family, AAA Domain Containing 2; AAA Nuclear Coregulator Cancer-Associated Protein; ANCCA; EC; PRO2000; CT137 29028 A0A024R9G7 A large family of ATPases has been described, whose key feature is that they share a conserved region of about 220 amino acids that contains an ATP-binding site. The proteins that belong to this family either contain one or two AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) domains. AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes. The protein encoded by this gene contains two AAA domains, as well as a bromodomain.
BRCA1 IRIS; PSCP; BRCAI; BRCC1; FANCS; PNCA4; RNF53; BROVCA1; PPP1R53 672 P38398 This gene encodes a 190 kD nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in maintaining genomic stability, and it also acts as a tumor suppressor. The BRCA1 gene contains 22 exons spanning about 110 kb of DNA. The encoded protein combines with other tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors, and signal transducers to form a large multi-subunit protein complex known as the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC). This gene product associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with histone deacetylase complexes. This protein thus plays a role in transcription, DNA repair of double-stranded breaks, and recombination. Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. Alternative splicing plays a role in modulating the subcellular localization and physiological function of this gene. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which are disease-associated mutations, have been described for this gene, but the full-length natures of only some of these variants has been described. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 17, has been identified.
CEACAM5 CEACAM-5; CD66e; CEA; Meconium antigen 100 1048 P06731 This gene encodes a cell surface glycoprotein that represents the founding member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of proteins. The encoded protein is used as a clinical biomarker for gastrointestinal cancers and may promote tumor development through its role as a cell adhesion molecule. Additionally, the encoded protein may regulate differentiation, apoptosis, and cell polarity. This gene is present in a CEA family gene cluster on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
DUSP6 Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 3; Dual Specificity Protein Phosphatase PYST1; MAP Kinase Phosphatase 3; PYST1; MKP3; Serine/Threonine Specific Protein Phosphatase 1848 Q16828 The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product inactivates ERK2, is expressed in a variety of tissues with the highest levels in heart and pancreas, and unlike most other members of this family, is localized in the cytoplasm. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.
EGFR Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor; Receptor Tyrosine-Protein Kinase ErbB-1; Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 1; Proto-Oncogene C-ErbB-1; EC; ERBB1; ERBB; HER1; Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Avian Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog); Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog (Avian) 1956 P00533 The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016]
ERBB2 ERBB2; CD340; HER-2/neu; HER2; MLN19; NEU; NGL; TKR1 2064 P04626 This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This protein has no ligand binding domain of its own and therefore cannot bind growth factors. However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Allelic variations at amino acid positions 654 and 655 of isoform a (positions 624 and 625 of isoform b) have been reported, with the most common allele, Ile654/Ile655, shown here. Amplification and/or overexpression of this gene has been reported in numerous cancers, including breast and ovarian tumors. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized.
HMMR Hyaluronan Mediated Motility Receptor; Intracellular Hyaluronic Acid-Binding Protein; Receptor For Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility; IHABP; RHAMM; Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility Receptor (RHAMM); Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility Receptor; CD168 Antigen; CD168 3161 O75330 The protein encoded by this gene is involved in cell motility. It is expressed in breast tissue and together with other proteins, it forms a complex with BRCA1 and BRCA2, thus is potentially associated with higher risk of breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene.
KIT KIT Proto-Oncogene Receptor Tyrosine Kinase; V-Kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 Feline Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog; Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Kit; Piebald Trait Protein; Proto-Oncogene C-Kit; EC; P145 C-Kit; SCFR; PBT; V-Kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 Feline Sarcoma Viral Oncogene-Like Protein 3815 P10721 This gene encodes the human homolog of the proto-oncogene c-kit. C-kit was first identified as the cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit. This protein is a type 3 transmembrane receptor for MGF (mast cell growth factor, also known as stem cell factor). Mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, mast cell disease, acute myelogenous lukemia, and piebaldism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KRT14 Keratin 14; Keratin 14, Type I; K14; Keratin 14 (Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex, Dowling-Meara, Koebner); Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex, Dowling-Meara, Koebner; Keratin, Type I Cytoskeletal 14; Cytokeratin 14; Cytokeratin-14 3861 P02533 This gene encodes a member of the keratin family, the most diverse group of intermediate filaments. This gene product, a type I keratin, is usually found as a heterotetramer with two keratin 5 molecules, a type II keratin. Together they form the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Mutations in the genes for these keratins are associated with epidermolysis bullosa simplex. At least one pseudogene has been identified at 17p12-p11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MKI67 Marker Of Proliferation Ki-67; Antigen Identified By Monoclonal Antibody Ki-67; Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 105; Antigen KI-67; Antigen Ki67; Proliferation-Related Ki-67 Antigen 4288 P46013 This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is associated with and may be necessary for cellular proliferation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. A related pseudogene exists on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
MUC1 ADMCKD; ADMCKD1; CA 15-3; CD227; EMA; H23AG; KL-6; MAM6; MCD; MCKD; MCKD1; MUC-1; MUC-1/SEC; MUC-1/X; MUC1/ZD; PEM; PEMT; PUM 4582 P15941 This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein that is a member of the mucin family. Mucins are O-glycosylated proteins that play an essential role in forming protective mucous barriers on epithelial surfaces. These proteins also play a role in intracellular signaling. This protein is expressed on the apical surface of epithelial cells that line the mucosal surfaces of many different tissues including lung, breast stomach and pancreas. This protein is proteolytically cleaved into alpha and beta subunits that form a heterodimeric complex. The N-terminal alpha subunit functions in cell-adhesion and the C-terminal beta subunit is involved in cell signaling. Overexpression, aberrant intracellular localization, and changes in glycosylation of this protein have been associated with carcinomas. This gene is known to contain a highly polymorphic variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) domain. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
NES Nestin 10763 P48681 This gene encodes a member of the intermediate filament protein family and is expressed primarily in nerve cells.
NGFR Nerve Growth Factor Receptor; Low Affinity Neurotrophin Receptor P75NTR; Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor; TNFR Superfamily, Member 16; NGF Receptor; Gp80-LNGFR; TNFRSF16; P75 ICD 4804 P08138 Nerve growth factor receptor contains an extracellular domain containing four 40-amino acid repeats with 6 cysteine residues at conserved positions followed by a serine/threonine-rich region, a single transmembrane domain, and a 155-amino acid cytoplasmic domain. The cysteine-rich region contains the nerve growth factor binding domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NME1 NME/NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 1; Non-Metastatic Cells 1, Protein (NM23A) Expressed In; Tumor Metastatic Process-Associated Protein; Metastasis Inhibition Factor Nm23; Granzyme A-Activated DNase; NDP Kinase A; EC; NM23-H1; NDPKA; GAAD 4830 P15531 This gene (NME1) was identified because of its reduced mRNA transcript levels in highly metastatic cells. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) exists as a hexamer composed of 'A' (encoded by this gene) and 'B' (encoded by NME2) isoforms. Mutations in this gene have been identified in aggressive neuroblastomas. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Co-transcription of this gene and the neighboring downstream gene (NME2) generates naturally-occurring transcripts (NME1-NME2), which encodes a fusion protein comprised of sequence sharing identity with each individual gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
p53 7157 K7PPA8
PARP1 Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1; ADP-Ribosyltransferase (NAD+; Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase); ADP-Ribosyltransferase Diphtheria Toxin-Like 1; Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family, Member 1; NAD(+) ADP-Ribosyltransferase 1; Poly[ADP-Ribose] Synthase 1; EC; ADPRT 1; PARP-1; ADPRT; ARTD1 142 P09874 This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery of cell from DNA damage. In addition, this enzyme may be the site of mutation in Fanconi anemia, and may participate in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PARP2 Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 2; ADP-Ribosyltransferase (NAD+; Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase)-Like 2; ADP-Ribosyltransferase Diphtheria Toxin-Like 2; Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family; Member 2; NAD(+) ADP-Ribosyltransferase 2; Poly[ADP-Ribose] Synthase 2; EC; PADPRT-2; ADPRTL2; ADPRT-2 10038 Q9UGN5 This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 2 protein, which contains a catalytic domain and is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. The basic residues within the N-terminal region of this protein may bear potential DNA-binding properties, and may be involved in the nuclear and/or nucleolar targeting of the protein. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found.
PARP4 PH5P; p193; ARTD4; PARPL; VPARP; VWA5C; PARP-4; VAULT3; ADPRTL1 143 Q9UKK3 This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus.
PPP4C PP-X; PP4; PP4C; PPH3; PPP4; PPX 5531 P60510 Protein phosphatase 4C may be involved in microtubule organization. It binds 1 iron ion and 1 manganese ion per subunit. PP4 consists of a catalytic subunit PPP4C and a regulatory subunit. PPP4R1 and belongs to the PPP phosphatase family, PPX subfamily.
PPP5C PP5; PPP5; PPT 5536 P53041 This gene encodes a serine/threonine phosphatase which is a member of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit family. Proteins in this family participate in pathways regulated by reversible phosphorylation at serine and threonine residues; many of these pathways are involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. The product of this gene has been shown to participate in signaling pathways in response to hormones or cellular stress, and elevated levels of this protein may be associated with breast cancer development.
PR PGR; NR3C3; Progesterone receptor; PR; Nuclear receptor subfamily 3group C member 3; H4 K20 HMTase; H4 K20 specific histone methyltransferase; H4-K20-HMTase SETD8; Histone H4 K20 methyltransferase; Histone lysine N methyltransferase H4 lysine 20 specific; Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase SETD8; Lysine N-methyltransferase 5A; N-lysine methyltransferase SETD8; Pr SET 7; Pr SET7; PR-Set7; PR/SET domain containing protein 07; PR/SET domain containing protein 8; PR/SET domain-containing protein 07; PR/SET07 387893 Q9NQR1 Protein-lysine N-methyltransferase that monomethylates both histones and non-histone proteins. Specifically monomethylates 'Lys-20' of histone H4 (H4K20me1). H4K20me1 is enriched during mitosis and represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression. Mainly functions in euchromatin regions, thereby playing a central role in the silencing of euchromatic genes. Required for cell proliferation, probably by contributing to the maintenance of proper higher order structure of DNA during mitosis. Involved in chromosome condensation and proper cytokinesis. Nucleosomes are preferred as substrate compared to free histones. Mediates monomethylation of p53/TP53 at 'Lys-382', leading to repress p53/TP53-target genes.
uPA ATF; BDPLT5; QPD; u-PA; UPA; URK 5328 P00749 This gene encodes a secreted serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate A and B polypeptide chains. These chains associate via a single disulfide bond to form the catalytically inactive high molecular weight urokinase-type plasminogen activator (HMW-uPA). HMW-uPA can be further processed into the catalytically active low molecular weight urokinase-type plasminogen activator (LMW-uPA). This low molecular weight form does not bind to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Quebec platelet disorder and late-onset Alzheimers disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed.
Urokinase Urokinase; Abbokinase; urokinase-type plasminogen activator; uPA Urokinase (trade name Abbokinase), also called urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), is a serine protease. It was discovered in 1947 by McFarlane. Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, but is present in several physiological locations, such as blood stream and the extracellular matrix. The primary physiological substrate is plasminogen, which is an inactive form (zymogen) of the serine protease plasmin. Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolysis cascade that, depending on the physiological environment, participates in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation. This links urokinase to vascular diseases and cancer.

Urokinase is a 411-residue protein, consisting of three domains: the serine protease domain, the kringle domain, and the growth factor domain. Urokinase is synthesized as a zymogen form (prourokinase or single-chain urokinase), and is activated by proteolytic cleavage between Lys158 and Ile159. The two resulting chains are kept together by a disulfide bond.
YAP1 COB1; YAP; YAP2; YAP65; YKI 10413 P46937 This gene encodes a downstream nuclear effector of the Hippo signaling pathway which is involved in development, growth, repair, and homeostasis. This gene is known to play a role in the development and progression of multiple cancers as a transcriptional regulator of this signaling pathway and may function as a potential target for cancer treatment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.

Tested Data-Supported Products Targeting Breast Cancer Biomarkers

CAT Product Name Biomarker Assay Image
TAB-229 Anti-Human Abeta Recombinant Antibody (Gantenerumab) APP ELISA
TAB-113CL Anti-Human CD24 Recombinant Antibody CD24 ELISA
HPAB-0163CQ Human Anti-EPCAM Recombinant Antibody (clone HuMAB UBS-54) EPCAM ELISA
  1. Hacking, Sean M., Evgeny Yakirevich, and Yihong Wang. "From immunohistochemistry to new digital ecosystems: A state-of-the-art biomarker review for precision breast cancer medicine." Cancers 14.14 (2022): 3469.

For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.

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