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Pancreatic Cancer Biomarkers

Representative Biomarkers Full List of Biomarkers Tested Data-Supported Products

Pancreatic cancer, a malignancy originating from the pancreatic ductal epithelium, represents one of the most lethal forms of cancer, with a 5-year survival rate that remains dismally low. This dire prognosis is largely due to the disease's asymptomatic nature in its early stages, leading to late diagnosis in the majority of cases. The pancreas, a vital organ located behind the stomach, plays a crucial role in digestion and metabolism, secreting enzymes that aid digestion and hormones such as insulin that regulate blood sugar. Pancreatic cancer is notoriously resistant to conventional treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, partly because of its ability to evade detection until it has progressed to an advanced stage. Additionally, its complex tumor microenvironment and the presence of dense stromal tissue around the cancer cells further complicate treatment efforts. Recent research efforts are focused on understanding the genetic and molecular underpinnings of the disease, with the hope of developing targeted therapies that can improve patient outcomes. Despite these challenges, advances in diagnostic imaging, minimally invasive surgical techniques, and the exploration of new treatment modalities offer a glimmer of hope for those affected by this devastating disease.

Figure 1 Biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (Wu, 2022) Figure 1 Biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (Wu, 2022)

Representative Biomarkers of Pancreatic Cancer


The Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) is a cell surface glycoprotein initially identified in prostate cancer but is also expressed in several other types of cancers, including pancreatic cancer. Structurally, PSCA is a member of the Thy-1/Ly-6 family, which is known for its roles in cell adhesion and signaling. In pancreatic cancer, PSCA plays a multifaceted role, contributing to the disease's progression, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. Its expression is upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to normal pancreatic tissues, making it a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. Functionally, PSCA's role in pancreatic cancer involves promoting cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis (cell death), and enhancing cell migration and invasion, thereby facilitating tumor growth and spread. Additionally, PSCA may influence the tumor microenvironment to favor cancer progression, including immune evasion mechanisms. Given its significant role in pancreatic cancer biology, PSCA is also being explored as a target for therapeutic interventions, with strategies including monoclonal antibodies and vaccine approaches aimed at reducing tumor growth and improving patient outcomes.

Recommended Mouse Anti-PSCA mAb (CAT#: HPAB-0287CQ)
 Figure 2 Mouse Anti-PSCA Recombinant Antibody (HPAB-0287CQ) in ELISA
Figure 2 ELISA analysis of HPAB-0287CQ was performed by coating with Human PSCA Protein, His Tag. The secondary antibody: HRP-Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L)


MUC1, short for Mucin 1, is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of epithelial cells, playing a crucial role in protecting and lubricating the cell surface. In the context of pancreatic cancer, MUC1 is overexpressed and undergoes aberrant glycosylation, leading to a disruption in normal cell signaling pathways. This overexpression is associated with cancer progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. MUC1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis by enhancing cell proliferation, survival, and invasion through its interaction with various signaling molecules and pathways, including the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways. Additionally, MUC1's altered glycosylation patterns in pancreatic cancer can shield tumor cells from immune surveillance, contributing to immune evasion. Moreover, the detection of MUC1 expression levels and its antibodies in serum has been explored as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer, reflecting its significant role in the disease's pathology.

Recommended Humanized Anti-MUC1 mAb (Gatipotuzumab) (CAT#: TAB-026ML)
Figure 3 Anti-Human MUC1 Recombinant Antibody (TAB-026ML) in HPLC
Figure 3 The purity of TAB-026ML was greater than 95% as determined by SEC-HPLC.
Recommended Mouse Anti-MUC1 mAb (CAT#: ZG-0016C)
Figure 4 Mouse Anti-MUC1 Antibody (clone PT0132) in IHC
Figure 4 Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Tonsil. 1, Antibody was diluted at 1:200 (4° overnight). 2, TRIS-EDTA of pH 8.0 was used forantigen retrieval. 3, Secondary antibody was diluted at 1:200 (room temperature, 30 min).
Recommended Rabbit Anti-MUC1 mAb (CAT#: ZG-0352U)
Figure 5 Rabbit Anti-MUC1 Antibody (ZG-0352U) in IHC-P
Figure 5 Epithelial membrane antigen expression in pulmonary adenocarcinoma, stained with anti-CD227 antibody. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded human tissues (4 μm sections) stained.


MDM2 (Mouse Double Minute 2 homolog) is a critical oncogene that plays a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis, acting primarily through its interaction with the tumor suppressor protein p53. In the context of pancreatic cancer, a disease characterized by aggressive behavior and poor prognosis, MDM2 assumes a crucial oncogenic role by inhibiting the tumor suppressor functions of p53. This interaction is significant as p53 is responsible for initiating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage or oncogenic stress, mechanisms central to the prevention of cancer development. Overexpression of MDM2 in pancreatic cancer leads to decreased p53 activity, facilitating unchecked cellular division, survival, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the MDM2-p53 axis is a focal point for the development of targeted therapies aimed at reactivating p53 function, offering hope for improved treatment options for pancreatic cancer patients. The modulation of MDM2 levels or disrupting its interaction with p53 presents a promising therapeutic strategy, potentially restoring the apoptotic capability of cancer cells and inhibiting tumor progression.

Recommended Rabbit Anti-MDM2 mAb (CAT#: ZG-0396U)
 Figure 6 Rabbit Anti-MDM2 Antibody (ZG-0396U) in IHC-P
Figure 6 Immunohistochemical staining patterns of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human liposarcoma tissue (4 μm sections) with Anti - mdm2 antibody using Ventana BenchMark. The liposarcoma tissues show strong nuclear mdm2 expression.

Full List of Pancreatic Cancer Biomarkers

Biomarker Alternative Names Gene ID UniProt ID Roles
BRAF B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine Kinase; V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1; V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B; Proto-Oncogene B-Raf; BRAF1; RAFB1; B-Raf Proto-Oncogene Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase (P94); Murine Sarcoma Viral (V-Raf) Oncogene Homolog B1; Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase B-Raf 673 P15056 This gene encodes a protein belonging to the RAF family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERK signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene, most commonly the V600E mutation, are the most frequently identified cancer-causing mutations in melanoma, and have been identified in various other cancers as well, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, hairy cell leukemia and adenocarcinoma of lung. Mutations in this gene are also associated with cardiofaciocutaneous, Noonan, and Costello syndromes, which exhibit overlapping phenotypes. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on the X chromosome.
CDKN2A Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (Melanoma, P16, Inhibits CDK4); Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 Inhibitor A; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A; Multiple Tumor Suppressor 1; Alternative Reading Frame; P16-INK4A; P16INK4A; P14ARF; CDKN2; CDK4I; MTS-1; MTS1; MLM 1029 P42771 CDKN2A loss has been shown to be a significant event in a number of cancer types. While no targeted therapeutic has been engaged in clinical trials, the prognostic impact has been studied by a number of meta-analyses. In majority of cases CDKN2A is inactivated by homozygous deletions. One of the mechanisms by which loss of CDKN2A can occur is by hypermethylation of the promoter region for the gene.
CEACAM1 CEACAM1; carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (biliary glycoprotein); BGP; BGP1; BGPI; carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1; antigen CD66; CD66a antigen 634 P13688 This gene encodes a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Two subgroups of the CEA family, the CEA cell adhesion molecules and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins, are located within a 1.2 Mb cluster on the long arm of chromosome 19. Eleven pseudogenes of the CEA cell adhesion molecule subgroup are also found in the cluster. The encoded protein was originally described in bile ducts of liver as biliary glycoprotein. Subsequently, it was found to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule detected on leukocytes, epithelia, and endothelia. The encoded protein mediates cell adhesion via homophilic as well as heterophilic binding to other proteins of the subgroup. Multiple cellular activities have been attributed to the encoded protein, including roles in the differentiation and arrangement of tissue three-dimensional structure, angiogenesis, apoptosis, tumor suppression, metastasis, and the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been reported, but the full-length nature of all variants has not been defined.
EGFR Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor; Receptor Tyrosine-Protein Kinase ErbB-1; Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 1; Proto-Oncogene C-ErbB-1; EC; ERBB1; ERBB; HER1; Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Avian Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog); Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog (Avian) 1956 P00533 The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016]
HER2 NEU; NGL; HER2; TKR1; CD340; HER-2; MLN 19; HER-2/neu 2064 P04626 This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This protein has no ligand binding domain of its own and therefore cannot bind growth factors. However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Allelic variations at amino acid positions 654 and 655 of isoform a (positions 624 and 625 of isoform b) have been reported, with the most common allele, Ile654/Ile655, shown here. Amplification and/or overexpression of this gene has been reported in numerous cancers, including breast and ovarian tumors. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized.
KRAS NS; NS3; CFC2; RALD; K-Ras; KRAS1; KRAS2; RASK2; KI-RAS; C-K-RAS; K-RAS2A; K-RAS2B; K-RAS4A; K-RAS4B; c-Ki-ras2 3845 P01116 This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MDM2 MDM2 Proto-Oncogene; MDM2 Proto-Oncogene, E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase; Oncoprotein Mdm2; Hdm2; Mdm2, Transformed 3T3 Cell Double Minute 2, P53 Binding Protein (Mouse); Mdm2, Transformed 3T3 Cell Double Minute 2, P53 Binding Protein; Mouse Double Minute 2, Human Homolog Of; P53-Binding Protein; Double Minute 2, Human Homolog Of; P53-Binding Protein; Mdm2, P53 E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Homolog; MDM2 Oncogene, E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 4193 A7UKX8 This gene encodes a nuclear-localized E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein can promote tumor formation by targeting tumor suppressor proteins, such as p53, for proteasomal degradation. This gene is itself transcriptionally-regulated by p53. Overexpression or amplification of this locus is detected in a variety of different cancers. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 2. Alternative splicing results in a multitude of transcript variants, many of which may be expressed only in tumor cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
MSH2 MutS Homolog 2; HMSH2; MutS (E. Coli) Homolog 2 (Colon Cancer, Nonpolyposis Type 1); MutS Homolog 2, Colon Cancer, Nonpolyposis Type 1 (E. Coli); MutS Homolog 2, Colon Cancer, Nonpolyposis Type 1; DNA Mismatch Repair Protein Msh2; MutS Protein Homolog 2 4436 P43246 This locus is frequently mutated in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). When cloned, it was discovered to be a human homolog of the E. Coli mismatch repair gene mutS, consistent with the characteristic alterations in microsatellite sequences (RER+ phenotype) found in HNPCC. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
MUC1 ADMCKD; ADMCKD1; CA 15-3; CD227; EMA; H23AG; KL-6; MAM6; MCD; MCKD; MCKD1; MUC-1; MUC-1/SEC; MUC-1/X; MUC1/ZD; PEM; PEMT; PUM 4582 P15941 This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein that is a member of the mucin family. Mucins are O-glycosylated proteins that play an essential role in forming protective mucous barriers on epithelial surfaces. These proteins also play a role in intracellular signaling. This protein is expressed on the apical surface of epithelial cells that line the mucosal surfaces of many different tissues including lung, breast stomach and pancreas. This protein is proteolytically cleaved into alpha and beta subunits that form a heterodimeric complex. The N-terminal alpha subunit functions in cell-adhesion and the C-terminal beta subunit is involved in cell signaling. Overexpression, aberrant intracellular localization, and changes in glycosylation of this protein have been associated with carcinomas. This gene is known to contain a highly polymorphic variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) domain. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
MUC4 Mucin 4, Cell Surface Associated; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Mucin; Mucin 4, Tracheobronchial; Ascites Sialoglycoprotein; Tracheobronchial Mucin; Testis Mucin 4585 Q99102 The major constituents of mucus, the viscous secretion that covers epithelial surfaces such as those in the trachea, colon, and cervix, are highly glycosylated proteins called mucins. These glycoproteins play important roles in the protection of the epithelial cells and have been implicated in epithelial renewal and differentiation. This gene encodes an integral membrane glycoprotein found on the cell surface, although secreted isoforms may exist. At least two dozen transcript variants of this gene have been found, although for many of them the full-length transcript has not been determined or they are found only in tumor tissues. This gene contains a region in the coding sequence which has a variable number (>100) of 48 nt tandem repeats. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
p53 7157 K7PPA8
PNLIPRP1 PNLIPRP1; pancreatic lipase-related protein 1; PLRP1; Pancreatic lipase related protein 1; PLRP1; PL-RP1; OTTHUMP00000020567; OTTHUMP00000230058; OTTHUMP00000230064; 5407 P54315
PRSS2 TRY2; TRY8; TRYP2 5645 P07478 This gene belongs to the trypsin family of serine proteases and encodes anionic trypsinogen. It is part of a cluster of trypsinogen genes that are located within the T cell receptor beta locus. Enzymes of this family cleave peptide bonds that follow lysine or arginine residues. This protein is found at high levels in pancreatic juice and its upregulation is a characteristic feature of pancreatitis. This protein has also been found to activate pro-urokinase in ovarian tumors, suggesting a function in tumor invasion. In addition, this enzyme is able to cleave across the type II collagen triple helix in rheumatoid arthritis synovitis tissue, potentially participating in the degradation of type II collagen-rich cartilage matrix. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
PSCA PSCA; UNQ206; PRO232 8000 O43653 This gene encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell membrane glycoprotein. In addition to being highly expressed in the prostate it is also expressed in the bladder, placenta, colon, kidney, and stomach. This gene is up-regulated in a large proportion of prostate cancers and is also detected in cancers of the bladder and pancreas. This gene includes a polymorphism that results in an upstream start codon in some individuals; this polymorphism is thought to be associated with a risk for certain gastric and bladder cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
Ron CD136; CDw136; NPCA3; PTK8; RON 4486 Q04912 Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a cell surface receptor for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) with tyrosine kinase activity. The mature form of this protein is a heterodimer of disulfide-linked alpha and beta subunits, generated by proteolytic cleavage of a single-chain precursor. The beta subunit undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation upon stimulation by MSP. This protein is expressed on the ciliated epithelia of the mucociliary transport apparatus of the lung, and together with MSP, thought to be involved in host defense. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms that may undergo similar proteolytic processing.
STK11 PJS; LKB1; hLKB1 6794 Q15831 The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell polarity and energy metabolism and functions as a tumor suppressor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the autosomal dominant Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, as well as with skin, pancreatic, and testicular cancers.

Tested Data-Supported Products Targeting Pancreatic Cancer Biomarkers

CAT Product Name Biomarker Assay Image
TAB-020 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Panitumumab) EGFR WB
TAB-710 Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Nimotuzumab) EGFR WB
TAB-040 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Zalutumumab) EGFR ELISA
TAB-119 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Necitumumab) EGFR ELISA
TAB-753 Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Imgatuzumab) EGFR SDS-PAGE
TAB-003 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Cetuximab) EGFR ELISA
TAB-H49 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Modotuximab) EGFR SDS-PAGE
PABW-088 Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 7A7) EGFR ELISA
TAB-271MZ Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (TAB-271MZ) EGFR SDS-PAGE
TAB-014MZ-VHH Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (OA-cb6) EGFR SDS-PAGE
TAB-428MZ Mouse Anti-MUC1 Recombinant Antibody (TAB-428MZ) MUC1 DB
TAB-439MZ Anti-Human MUC1 Recombinant Antibody (1B2) MUC1 SDS-PAGE
PABX-052 Recombinant Human Anti-EGFR Antibody (Nimotuzumab) EGFR SDS-PAGE
PABX-052-S (P) Recombinant Human Anti-EGFR Antibody scFv Fragment (Nimotuzumab) EGFR SDS-PAGE
TAB-026ML Anti-Human MUC1 Recombinant Antibody (Gatipotuzumab) MUC1 SDS-PAGE
HPAB-0094-YC Mouse Anti-MUC1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 12D10) MUC1 SDS-PAGE
HPAB-0727-CN Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone EGFR) EGFR SDS-PAGE
HPAB-0287CQ Mouse Anti-PSCA Recombinant Antibody (clone mAb 8D11) PSCA SDS-PAGE
ZG-0010C Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 1B10) EGFR IF
ZG-0011C Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone M6) EGFR WB
ZG-0015C Mouse Anti-MUC1 Recombinant Antibody (clone ABT-EMA) MUC1 IHC
ZG-0016C Mouse Anti-MUC1 Recombinant Antibody (clone PT0132) MUC1 IHC
ZG-0321F Mouse Anti-BRaf Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0321F) BRaf WB
ZG-0289C Mouse Anti-MSH2 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0289C) MSH2 WB
ZG-0290C Mouse Anti-MSH2 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0290C) MSH2 WB
ZG-0333C Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0333C) CDKN2A WB
ZG-0334C Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0334C) CDKN2A WB
ZG-0335C Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0335C) CDKN2A WB
ZG-053R Mouse Anti-BRAF Recombinant Antibody (ZG-053R) BRAF WB
ZG-070R Mouse Anti-Ron Recombinant Antibody (ZG-070R) Ron WB
ZG-0795F Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (clone DCS50.1) CDKN2A IHC
ZG-0082U Rabbit Anti-CEACAM1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 10H8) CEACAM1 IHC
ZG-0642J Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 3H9) EGFR WB
ZG-0643J Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 1B8) EGFR WB
ZG-0644J Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 9F10) EGFR WB
ZG-0645J Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 5D4) EGFR WB
ZG-0571J Rabbit Anti-BRAF Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0571J) BRAF WB
ZG-0299U Rabbit Anti-BRAF Recombinant Antibody (clone G11-G) BRAF IHC-P
ZG-0352U Rabbit Anti-MUC1 Recombinant Antibody (clone G22-L) MUC1 IHC-P
ZG-0365U Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone A20-E) EGFR IHC-P
ZG-0369U Rabbit Anti-MSH2 Recombinant Antibody (clone N29-D) MSH2 IHC-P
ZG-0394U Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (clone R15-A) CDKN2A IHC-P
ZG-0396U Rabbit Anti-MDM2 Recombinant Antibody (clone E22-L) MDM2 IHC-P
VS3-FY360 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-CDKN2A Antibody (clone R02-6H1) CDKN2A WB
VS3-FY361 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-CDKN2A Antibody (clone R04-8C9) CDKN2A WB
VS3-FY472 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (clone R01-2D3) EGFR WB
VS3-FY473 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (clone R03-5C8) EGFR IHC
VS3-FY475 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (clone R05-2A2) EGFR WB
VS3-FY476 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (clone R08-9H7) EGFR WB
VS3-FY919 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-MDM2 (phospho Ser166) Antibody (clone R08-8C7) MDM2 WB
VS3-FY959 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-MSH2 Antibody (clone R04-8B4) MSH2 WB
VS3-FY974 Recombinant Mouse Anti-MUC1 Antibody (clone 6A8-8D6-5A2) MUC1 IHC-P
VS3-FY984 Recombinant Mouse Anti-MUC4 Antibody (clone 4G9-2D7-7A3) MUC4 IHC-P
  1. Wu, Haotian, et al. "Advances in biomarkers and techniques for pancreatic cancer diagnosis." Cancer Cell International 22.1 (2022): 1-12.

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