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Glioma Biomarkers

Representative Biomarkers Full List of Biomarkers Tested Data-Supported Products

Glioma represents the most prevalent form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms, originating from glial cells. Characterized by their diffusive infiltration into surrounding brain tissue, gliomas pose a significant challenge in diagnosis and treatment. The United States records approximately six glioma cases per 100,000 individuals annually. These tumors range from the highly malignant glioblastoma to the less aggressive pilocytic astrocytomas. Recent advancements have shifted the classification of gliomas from purely histopathological criteria to include molecular and genetic markers, offering better prognostic and therapeutic insights. This classification spans from grade I to IV, based on factors such as the mitotic index and the presence or absence of necrosis, further refining treatment approaches and patient management strategies. The complexity of glioma, coupled with its varying degrees of malignancy, underscores the necessity for a nuanced understanding of its pathophysiology, enabling more effective interprofessional efforts in managing this challenging CNS pathology.

Figure 1 Schematic showing how the disease entities from WHO 2016 is now defined in WHO 2021. (Benjamin, 2022) Figure 1 Schematic showing how the disease entities from WHO 2016 is now defined in WHO 2021. (Benjamin, 2022)

Representative Biomarkers of Glioma


The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays a pivotal role in cellular proliferation and survival, making it a key target in cancer research, particularly in gliomas, the most aggressive form of brain tumors. EGFR gene amplification and overexpression are especially prominent in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), observed in about 40% of cases. Notably, around 50% of GBM cases with EGFR amplification also exhibit a specific mutant form of EGFR, known as EGFRvIII. This mutant is characterized by a deletion that results in constitutive signaling independent of ligand binding, contributing significantly to tumor growth and resistance to therapy. The presence of EGFRvIII is associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype and has been linked to poor prognosis, underscoring its importance in glioma pathogenesis and as a potential therapeutic target.

Recommended Human Anti-EGFR mAb (Nimotuzumab) (CAT#: TAB-710)
Figure 2 Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (TAB-710) in ELISA
Figure 2 ELISA analysis of TAB-710 was performed by coating with human EGFR protein (His Tag). The secondary antibody: HRP-anti-human IgG.
Recommended Rabbit Anti-EGFR mAb (CAT#: ZG-0644J)
Figure 3 Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (ZG-0644J) in FC
Figure 3 Overlay histogram showing Jurkat cells stained with this product (red line) at 1:50. The cells were fixed with 70% Ethylalcohol (18h) and then incubated in 10% normal goat serum to block non-specific protein-protein interactions followedby the antibody (1µg/1*106cells) for 1 h at 4°C. The secondary antibody used was FITC-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) at 1/200 dilution for 30min at 4°C. Control antibody (green line) was Rabbit IgG (1µg/1*106cells) used under the same conditions. Acquisition of>10,000 events was performed.
Recommended Human Anti-EGFR mAb (CAT#: TAB-014MZ-VHH)
Figure 4 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (TAB-014MZ-VHH) in HPLC
Figure 4 The purity of TAB-014MZ-VHH was greater than 95% as determined by HPLC.


CDKN2A, also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle, acting as a tumor suppressor gene by inhibiting the activity of CDK4 and CDK6, thus preventing the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and halting cell cycle progression at the G1 phase. This gene is of particular interest in the context of glioma, a type of brain tumor that originates from glial cells. Mutations, deletions, or epigenetic silencing of CDKN2A are frequently observed in various subtypes of glioma, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumor development. The loss of CDKN2A function is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive tumor behavior, underscoring its significance in glioma pathogenesis. Its role extends beyond cell cycle regulation, as it also influences apoptosis, senescence, and DNA repair mechanisms, impacting tumor response to therapy. Understanding the biology of CDKN2A in glioma not only sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underpinning tumorigenesis but also opens avenues for targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring its tumor suppressive functions or counteracting the effects of its loss.

Recommended Mouse Anti-CDKN2A mAb (CAT#: ZG-0334C)
Figure 5 Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Antibody (ZG-0334C) in IHC
Figure 5 Immunohistochemistry analysis of paraffin-embedded rat liver tissue (A), human brain tumor (B), breast cancer (C), esophageal epithelium tissue (D), mouse brain tissue (E) and stomach tisue (F), showing nuclear localization with DAB staining using p16 monoclonal antibody.
Recommended Rabbit Anti-CDKN2A mAb (CAT#: ZG-0376U)
Figure 6 Rabbit Anti-CDKN2A Antibody (ZG-0376U) in IHC-P
Figure 6 Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix, stained with anti-p16 monoclonal antibody. The result shows strong and specific positive immunostaining of dysplastic and neoplastic epithelium, with no reactivity in normal epithelial and stromal structures. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded human tissues (4 μm sections) stained.
Recommended Mouse Anti-CDKN2A mAb (CAT#: ZG-0795F)
Figure 7 Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Antibody (ZG-0795F) in IHC
Figure 7 Immunohistochemical staining of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue from an HPV infected preneoplastic lesion in the uterine cervix using p16-INK4a antibody. Antigen retreival was performed with Tris/EDTA buffer pH 9.


BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase involved in the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in cell division, differentiation, and secretion. As a part of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, BRAF mutations often lead to excessive cell proliferation and survival, contributing to the development of various cancers, including gliomas. Gliomas, a category of brain tumors that arise from glial cells, have been found to sometimes harbor mutations in the BRAF gene, particularly the V600E mutation, which leads to a constitutively active form of the B-Raf protein. This mutation promotes uncontrolled cell growth and tumor development in the brain. The presence of BRAF mutations in gliomas has significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies, as targeted therapies that inhibit the activity of the mutated BRAF protein have shown promise in improving outcomes for patients with these mutations.

Recommended Mouse Anti-BRAF mAb (CAT#: ZG-054R)
Figure 8 Mouse Anti-BRAF Antibody (ZG-054R) in IHC
Figure 8 Immunohistochemistry analysis of paraffin-embedded human testis tissues with AEC staining using Raf-B monoclonal antibody.
Recommended Rabbit Anti-BRAF mAb (CAT#: ZG-0571J)
Figure 9 Rabbit Anti-BRAF Antibody (ZG-0571J) in IF
Figure 9 Immunofluorescence staining of HepG2 cells with ZG-0571J at 1:100,counter-stained with DAPI. The cells were fixed in 4% formaldehyde, permeabilized using 0.2% Triton X-100 and blocked in 10% normal Goat Serum. The cells were then incubated with the antibody overnight at 4°C. The secondary antibody was Alexa Fluor 488-congugated Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L).
Recommended Rabbit Anti-BRAF mAb (CAT#: ZG-0299U)
Figure 10 Rabbit Anti-BRAF Antibody (ZG-0299U) in IHC-P
Figure 10 Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded human tissues (4 μm sections) stained with Anti - B-raf antibody. Nuclear B-raf expression in the epithelium and stromal cells in normal bowel mucosa tissue.

Full List of Glioma Biomarkers

Biomarker Alternative Names Gene ID UniProt ID Roles
AEBP1 AE Binding Protein 1; Aortic Carboxypeptidase-Like Protein 2; AE-Binding Protein 1; ACLP; Adipocyte Enhancer Binding Protein 1 165 Q8IUX7 This gene encodes a member of carboxypeptidase A protein family. The encoded protein may function as a transcriptional repressor and play a role in adipogenesis and smooth muscle cell differentiation. Studies in mice suggest that this gene functions in wound healing and abdominal wall development. Overexpression of this gene is associated with glioblastoma.
APRIL APRIL; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13-like; a proliferation-inducing ligand 103112612 APRIL is a cytokine that belongs to the TNF superfamily and binds to TACI and BCMA. It is implicated in the regulation of tumor cell growth and is involved in monocyte/macrophage-mediated immunological processes. Anti-APRIL (mouse) Monoclonal Antibody (recombinant) (Blocking) (APRY-1-1) is an antibody developed by antibody phage display technology using a human naive antibody gene library. These libraries consist of scFv (single chain fragment variable) composed of VH (variable domain of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain) and VL (variable domain of the human immunoglobulin light chain) connected by a polypeptide linker. The antibody fragments are displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage (M13). This scFv was selected by affinity selection on antigen in a process termed panning. Multiple rounds of panning are performed to enrich for antigen-specific scFv-phage. Monoclonal antibodies are subsequently identified by screening after each round of selection. The selected monoclonal scFv is cloned into an appropriate vector containing a Fc portion of interest and then produced in mammalian cells to generate an IgG like scFv-Fc fusion protein.
ASCL1 ASCL1; achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1; ASH1; HASH1; MASH1; bHLHa46; achaete-scute homolog 1; ASH-1; achaete scute protein; achaete-scute complex-like 1; achaete-scute complex homolog 1; class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 46; 429 P50553 This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. The protein activates transcription by binding to the E box (5-CANNTG-3). Dimerization with other BHLH proteins is required for efficient DNA binding. This protein plays a role in the neuronal commitment and differentiation and in the generation of olfactory and autonomic neurons. Mutations in this gene may contribute to the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) phenotype in rare cases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B2M Beta-2-Microglobulin; Beta Chain Of MHC Class I Molecules; Beta-2-Microglobin; IMD43 567 P61769 This gene encodes a serum protein found in association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chain on the surface of nearly all nucleated cells. The protein has a predominantly beta-pleated sheet structure that can form amyloid fibrils in some pathological conditions. The encoded antimicrobial protein displays antibacterial activity in amniotic fluid. A mutation in this gene has been shown to result in hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia.B2M (Beta-2-Microglobulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with B2M include Immunodeficiency 43 and Amyloidosis, Familial Visceral. Among its related pathways are Cytokine Signaling in Immune system and Innate Immune System. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding.Component of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system. Exogenously applied M.tuberculosis EsxA or EsxA-EsxB (or EsxA expressed in host) binds B2M and decreases its export to the cell surface (total protein levels do not change), probably leading to defects in class I antigen presentation (PubMed:25356553).
BRAF B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine Kinase; V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1; V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B; Proto-Oncogene B-Raf; BRAF1; RAFB1; B-Raf Proto-Oncogene Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase (P94); Murine Sarcoma Viral (V-Raf) Oncogene Homolog B1; Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase B-Raf 673 P15056 This gene encodes a protein belonging to the RAF family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERK signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene, most commonly the V600E mutation, are the most frequently identified cancer-causing mutations in melanoma, and have been identified in various other cancers as well, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, hairy cell leukemia and adenocarcinoma of lung. Mutations in this gene are also associated with cardiofaciocutaneous, Noonan, and Costello syndromes, which exhibit overlapping phenotypes. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on the X chromosome.
CALD1 Caldesmon 1; CDM; Testis Secretory Sperm-Binding Protein Li 227n; Caldesmon; H-CAD; L-CAD 800 Q05682 CALD1 (Caldesmon 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CALD1 include Mixed Endometrial Stromal And Smooth Muscle Tumor and Kidney Leiomyosarcoma. Among its related pathways are Cardiac conduction and Smooth Muscle Contraction. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin binding and myosin binding.
CD25 CD25; Il2r; Ly-43 16184 P01590 CD25 (alpha-chain of IL-2 receptor, or IL2RA), is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein with a signal peptide, an extracellular region, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic domain. IL2RA is expressed on activated T cells and regulatory T cells, and is capable of binding IL2 with low affinity by itself. However, a ligand-induced high affinity heterotrimeric receptor complex is produced when IL2RA is associated non-covelently with the IL2 receptor beta and gamma chain, and subsequently initiates the intacellular signal pathways such as MAPK or JAK/STAT. On dendritic cells (DC), CD25 has been previously regarded as an activation marker, while both murine and human DC can express CD25, they do not express the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, which is indispensable for the execution of IL-2 signaling. The IL2RA (CD25) gene is a substantial component of the high-affinity receptor molecule highly expressed by activated T lymphocytes. Recently, a strong evidence was obtained for the involvement of IL-2RA in conferring susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Cancer growth and development is associated with the stimulation of the innate immune system, including enhanced interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) expression in immune cells and its shedding into the circulation in a soluble form of sIL-2Ralpha. In most haematological malignancies, including different types of leukaemias and lymphomas, sIL-2Ralpha has been found to be released directly from the surface of neoplastic cells thus reflecting the tumour bulk, turnover and activity. Several studies have proved that not only lymphoid cancer cells, but also some non-lymphoid cancer cells, express IL-2R on their surface. They include malignant melanoma and carcinomas of the kidney, head and neck, oesophagus and lung. Thus, sIL-2Ralpha is elevated in most proliferative disturbances of the hematopoietic system and in many solid tumors.
CD44 CD44 Molecule (Indian Blood Group); Hematopoietic Cell E- And L-Selectin Ligand; GP90 Lymphocyte Homing/Adhesion Receptor; Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 8; Extracellular Matrix Receptor III; Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan; Phagocytic Glycoprotein 1; Hyaluronate Receptor; Hermes Antigen; CD44 Antigen; ECMR-III; HUTCH-I; Epican; CDW44; MDU2; MDU3 960 P16070 The protein encoded by this gene is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. It is a receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA) and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This protein participates in a wide variety of cellular functions including lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, hematopoiesis, and tumor metastasis. Transcripts for this gene undergo complex alternative splicing that results in many functionally distinct isoforms, however, the full length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. Alternative splicing is the basis for the structural and functional diversity of this protein, and may be related to tumor metastasis.
CD63 CD63 antigen; Granulophysin; LAMP-3; Limp1; Melanoma-associated antigen ME491; OMA81H; Ocular melanoma-associated antigen; Tetraspanin-30; Tspan-30 967 P08962 The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. The encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. It may function as a blood platelet activation marker. Deficiency of this protein is associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Also this gene has been associated with tumor progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms.
CDKN2A Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (Melanoma, P16, Inhibits CDK4); Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 Inhibitor A; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A; Multiple Tumor Suppressor 1; Alternative Reading Frame; P16-INK4A; P16INK4A; P14ARF; CDKN2; CDK4I; MTS-1; MTS1; MLM 1029 P42771 CDKN2A loss has been shown to be a significant event in a number of cancer types. While no targeted therapeutic has been engaged in clinical trials, the prognostic impact has been studied by a number of meta-analyses. In majority of cases CDKN2A is inactivated by homozygous deletions. One of the mechanisms by which loss of CDKN2A can occur is by hypermethylation of the promoter region for the gene.
CHI3L1 ASRT7; CGP-39; GP-39; GP39; HC-gp39; HCGP-3P; hCGP-39; YK-40; YKL-40; YKL40; YYL-40 1116 P36222 Chitinases catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin, which is an abundant glycopolymer found in insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls. The glycoside hydrolase 18 family of chitinases includes eight human family members. This gene encodes a glycoprotein member of the glycosyl hydrolase 18 family. The protein lacks chitinase activity and is secreted by activated macrophages, chondrocytes, neutrophils and synovial cells. The protein is thought to play a role in the process of inflammation and tissue remodeling.
CTSD Cathepsin D; Ceroid-Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal 10; EC; CPSD; Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 130P; Cathepsin D (Lysosomal Aspartyl Protease) 1509 P07339 CTSD (Cathepsin D) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CTSD include Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal, 10 and Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Among its related pathways are Peptide hormone metabolism and Innate Immune System. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include aspartic-type endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000250644.
CXCL9 C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9; Monokine Induced By Gamma Interferon; Monokine Induced By Interferon-Gamma; Gamma-Interferon-Induced Monokine; Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 9; Small-Inducible Cytokine B9; Humig 4283 Q07325 CXCL9 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CXCL9 include Endotheliitis and Sydenham Chorea. Among its related pathways are PEDF Induced Signaling and Akt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is CXCL10.
DLL3 Delta Like Canonical Notch Ligand 3; Drosophila Delta Homolog 3; Delta3; Delta (Drosophila)-Like 3; Delta-Like 3 (Drosophila); Delta-Like Protein 3; Delta-Like 3; SCDO1 10683 Q9NYJ7 This gene encodes a member of the delta protein ligand family. This family functions as Notch ligands that are characterized by a DSL domain, EGF repeats, and a transmembrane domain. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis 1. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene.
EGFR Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor; Receptor Tyrosine-Protein Kinase ErbB-1; Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 1; Proto-Oncogene C-ErbB-1; EC; ERBB1; ERBB; HER1; Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Avian Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog); Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog (Avian) 1956 P00533 The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016]
ENO1 Enolase 1; 2-Phospho-D-Glycerate Hydro-Lyase; Plasminogen-Binding Protein; Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; Enolase 1, (Alpha); Non-Neural Enolase; Alpha-Enolase; EC; ENO1L1; MPB1; NNE; Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 17; C-Myc Promoter-Binding Protein-1 2023 P06733 This gene encodes alpha-enolase, one of three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. Each isoenzyme is a homodimer composed of 2 alpha, 2 gamma, or 2 beta subunits, and functions as a glycolytic enzyme. Alpha-enolase in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. Alternative splicing of this gene results in a shorter isoform that has been shown to bind to the c-myc promoter and function as a tumor suppressor. Several pseudogenes have been identified, including one on the long arm of chromosome 1. Alpha-enolase has also been identified as an autoantigen in Hashimoto encephalopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
FGF2 Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (Basic); Heparin-Binding Growth Factor 2; HBGF-2; FGF-2; BFGF 2247 P09038 The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members bind heparin and possess broad mitogenic and angiogenic activities. This protein has been implicated in diverse biological processes, such as limb and nervous system development, wound healing, and tumor growth. The mRNA for this gene contains multiple polyadenylation sites, and is alternatively translated from non-AUG (CUG) and AUG initiation codons, resulting in five different isoforms with distinct properties. The CUG-initiated isoforms are localized in the nucleus and are responsible for the intracrine effect, whereas, the AUG-initiated form is mostly cytosolic and is responsible for the paracrine and autocrine effects of this FGF. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FLT1 Fms Related Tyrosine Kinase 1; Vascular Permeability Factor Receptor; Fms-Related Tyrosine Kinase 1 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Permeability Factor Receptor); Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1; Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Receptor FLT; Tyrosine-Protein Kinase FRT; Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1 2321 P17948 This gene encodes a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family. VEGFR family members are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which contain an extracellular ligand-binding region with seven immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and a tyrosine kinase (TK) domain within the cytoplasmic domain. This protein binds to VEGFR-A, VEGFR-B and placental growth factor and plays an important role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Expression of this receptor is found in vascular endothelial cells, placental trophoblast cells and peripheral blood monocytes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Isoforms include a full-length transmembrane receptor isoform and shortened, soluble isoforms. The soluble isoforms are associated with the onset of pre-eclampsia.
FOXM1 Forkhead Box M1; M-Phase Phosphoprotein 2; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 Forkhead Homolog 11; Winged-Helix Factor From INS-1 Cells; Forkhead-Related Protein FKHL16; MPM-2 Reactive Phosphoprotein 2; Transcription Factor Trident; HNF-3/Fork-Head Homolog 11; FKHL16; HFH-11; HFH11; MPP2 2305 Q08050 The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator involved in cell proliferation. The encoded protein is phosphorylated in M phase and regulates the expression of several cell cycle genes, such as cyclin B1 and cyclin D1. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
FSTL1 FRP; FSL1; OCC1; OCC-1; tsc36; MIR198 11167 Q12841 Follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) is an extracellular glycoprotein whose functional significance in physiological and pathological processes is incompletely understood. Recently, we have shown that FSTL1 acts as a muscle-derived secreted factor that is up-regulated by Akt activation and ischemic stress and that FSTL1 exerts favorable actions on the heart and vasculature. Here, we sought to identify the receptor that mediates the cellular actions of FSTL1. It contains an FS module, a follistatin-like sequence containing 10 conserved cysteine residues. FSTL1 is thought to be an autoantigen associated with rheumatoid arthritis. DIP2A functions as a novel receptor that mediates the cardiovascular protective effects of FSTL1. Experiment results have provided in vivo and in vitro evidence to demonstrate that Fstl1 modulates lung development and alveolar maturation, in part, through BMP4 signaling.
GABRA1 Gabra1 2554 P14867 Enables diazepam binding activity. Contributes to GABA receptor activity. Involved in GABAergic synaptic transmission and cellular response to histamine. Located in membrane. Is integral component of plasma membrane. Part of GABA receptor complex. Is active in GABA-ergic synapse. Is integral component of postsynaptic specialization membrane. Biomarker of hepatic encephalopathy. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 19 and idiopathic generalized epilepsy 13. Orthologous to human GABRA1 (gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit alpha1).
GADD45A DDIT1; GADD45 1647 P24522 This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The DNA damage-induced transcription of this gene is mediated by both p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
GAS1 GAS1; Growth arrest-specific protein 1 precursor 2619 P54826 Growth arrest-specific 1 plays a role in growth suppression. GAS1 blocks entry to S phase and prevents cycling of normal and transformed cells. Gas1 is a putative tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GFAP Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; Intermediate Filament Protein; ALXDRD 2670 P14136 This gene encodes one of the major intermediate filament proteins of mature astrocytes. It is used as a marker to distinguish astrocytes from other glial cells during development. Mutations in this gene cause Alexander disease, a rare disorder of astrocytes in the central nervous system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
GPX3 GPX3; GPXP; GSHPx-3; Extracellular Glutathione Peroxidase; Plasma Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.11.1; EC; GPx-P; GPx-3; Glutathione Peroxidase 3 (Plasma); Glutathione Peroxidase 3; GSHPx-P 2878 P22352 Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione
GSN Gelsolin; Actin-Depolymerizing Factor; Brevin; AGEL; ADF; Gelsolin (Amyloidosis, Finnish Type); Amyloidosis, Finnish Type 2934 P06396 The protein encoded by this gene binds to the "plus" ends of actin monomers and filaments to prevent monomer exchange. The encoded calcium-regulated protein functions in both assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. Defects in this gene are a cause of familial amyloidosis Finnish type (FAF). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IDH1 Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 1, Cytosolic 3417 O75874 Isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to 2-oxoglutarate. These enzymes belong to two distinct subclasses, one of which utilizes NAD(+) as the electron acceptor and the other NADP(+). Five isocitrate dehydrogenases have been reported: three NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, which localize to the mitochondrial matrix, and two NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, one of which is mitochondrial and the other predominantly cytosolic. Each NADP(+)-dependent isozyme is a homodimer. The protein encoded by this gene is the NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase found in the cytoplasm and peroxisomes. It contains the PTS-1 peroxisomal targeting signal sequence. The presence of this enzyme in peroxisomes suggests roles in the regeneration of NADPH for intraperoxisomal reductions, such as the conversion of 2, 4-dienoyl-CoAs to 3-enoyl-CoAs, as well as in peroxisomal reactions that consume 2-oxoglutarate, namely the alpha-hydroxylation of phytanic acid. The cytoplasmic enzyme serves a significant role in cytoplasmic NADPH production. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
IgE Immunoglobulin E; IgE P06336 Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals. IgE is synthesised by plasma cells. Monomers of IgE consist of two heavy chains (ε chain) and two light chains, with the ε chain containing 4 Ig-like constant domains (Cε1-Cε4).
IGFBP2 Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 3485 P18065 The protein encoded by this gene is one of six similar proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II). The encoded protein can be secreted into the bloodstream, where it binds IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity, or it can remain intracellular, interacting with many different ligands. High expression levels of this protein promote the growth of several types of tumors and may be predictive of the chances of recovery of the patient. Several transcript variants, one encoding a secreted isoform and the others encoding nonsecreted isoforms, have been found for this gene.
IL25 IL17E; interleukin-25; interleukin-17E 64806 Q9H293 The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that shares sequence similarity with interleukin 17. This cytokine can induce NF-kappaB activation, and stimulate the production of interleukin 8. Both this cytokine and interleukin 17B are ligands for the cytokine receptor IL17BR. Studies of a similar gene in mice suggest that this cytokine may be a pro-inflammatory cytokine favoring the Th2-type immune response. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.
IL-6 CDF; HGF; HSF; BSF2; IL-6; BSF-2; IFNB2; IFN-beta-2 Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional α-helical cytokine that regulates cell growth and differentiation of various tissues, which is known particularly for its role in the immune response and acute phase reactions. IL-6 protein is secreted by a variety of cell types including T cells and macrophages as phosphorylated and variably glycosylated molecule. It exerts actions through the its heterodimeric receptor composed of IL-6R that lacks the tyrosine/kinase domain and binds IL-6 with low affinity, and ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein 130 (gp130) that binds the IL-6. IL-6R complex with high affinity and thus transduces signals. IL-6 is also involved in hematopoiesis, bone metabolism, and cancer progression, and has been defined an essential role in directing transition from innate to acquired immunity.
IQGAP1 IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Protein 1 8826 P46940 This gene encodes a member of the IQGAP family. The protein contains four IQ domains, one calponin homology domain, one Ras-GAP domain and one WW domain. It interacts with components of the cytoskeleton, with cell adhesion molecules, and with several signaling molecules to regulate cell morphology and motility. Expression of the protein is upregulated by gene amplification in two gastric cancer cell lines.
JAG1 AGS; AHD; AWS; HJ1; AGS1; DCHE; CD339; JAGL1; CMT2HH 182 P78504 The jagged 1 protein encoded by JAG1 is the human homolog of the Drosophilia jagged protein. Human jagged 1 is the ligand for the receptor notch 1, the latter is involved in signaling processes. Mutations that alter the jagged 1 protein cause Alagille syndrome. Jagged 1 signalling through notch 1 has also been shown to play a role in hematopoiesis.
MGMT O-6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; Methylated-DNA--Protein-Cysteine Methyltransferase; -O-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; O-6-Methylguanine-DNA-Alkyltransferase; EC; O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase 4255 P16455 Alkylating agents are potent carcinogens that can result in cell death, mutation and cancer. The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA repair protein that is involved in cellular defense against mutagenesis and toxicity from alkylating agents. The protein catalyzes transfer of methyl groups from O(6)-alkylguanine and other methylated moieties of the DNA to its own molecule, which repairs the toxic lesions. Methylation of the genes promoter has been associated with several cancer types, including colorectal cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma and glioblastoma. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
MMP9 Matrix Metallopeptidase 9; Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (Gelatinase B, 92kDa Gelatinase, 92kDa Type IV Collagenase); EC; CLG4B; MMP-9; GELB; Matrix Metallopeptidase 9 (Gelatinase B, 92kDa Gelatinase, 92kDa Type IV Collagenase); Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 4318 P14780 Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The enzyme encoded by this gene degrades type IV and V collagens. Studies in rhesus monkeys suggest that the enzyme is involved in IL-8-induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow, and murine studies suggest a role in tumor-associated tissue remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NAMPT Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase; Visfatin; Pre-B-Cell Colony-Enhancing Factor 1; Pre-B Cell-Enhancing Factor; EC; NAmPRTase; PBEF1 10135 P43490 This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the condensation of nicotinamide with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield nicotinamide mononucleotide, one step in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The protein belongs to the nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRTase) family and is thought to be involved in many important biological processes, including metabolism, stress response and aging. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 10.
NCAM2 Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 2; N-CAM-2; NCAM-2; NCAM21 4685 O15394 The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. It is a type I membrane protein and may function in selective fasciculation and zone-to-zone projection of the primary olfactory axons. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NEFL Neurofilament Light; Protein Phosphatase 1, Regulatory Subunit 110; Neurofilament, Light Polypeptide 68kDa; Neurofilament Triplet L Protein; NF-L; NF68; NFL; Light Molecular Weight Neurofilament Protein; Neurofilament Protein, Light Chain 4747 P07196 Neurofilaments are type IV intermediate filament heteropolymers composed of light, medium, and heavy chains. Neurofilaments comprise the axoskeleton and they functionally maintain the neuronal caliber. They may also play a role in intracellular transport to axons and dendrites. This gene encodes the light chain neurofilament protein. Mutations in this gene cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease types 1F (CMT1F) and 2E (CMT2E), disorders of the peripheral nervous system that are characterized by distinct neuropathies. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome Y. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
NES Nestin 10763 P48681 This gene encodes a member of the intermediate filament protein family and is expressed primarily in nerve cells.
NOTCH3 Notch 3; Neurogenic Locus Notch Homolog Protein 3; Notch (Drosophila) Homolog 3; Notch Homolog 3 (Drosophila); Notch Homolog 3; CADASIL1 4854 Q9UM47 This gene encodes the third discovered human homologue of the Drosophilia melanogaster type I membrane protein notch. In Drosophilia, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes an intercellular signalling pathway that plays a key role in neural development. Homologues of the notch-ligands have also been identified in human, but precise interactions between these ligands and the human notch homologues remains to be determined. Mutations in NOTCH3 have been identified as the underlying cause of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL).
NPDC-1 NPDC1 Q8WXX4 NPDC-1 has been shown to bind to E2F-1, a variety of cyclins, and to drive differentiation events in neuronal precursor cells.
OLIG2 Oligodendrocyte Transcription Factor 2; Oligodendrocyte-Specific BHLH Transcription Factor 2; Basic Domain; Helix-Loop-Helix Protein; Class B; 1; Oligodendrocyte Lineage Transcription Factor 2; Human Protein Kinase C-Binding Protein RACK17; Class E Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein 19; Class B Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein 1; Protein Kinase C Binding Protein 2 10215 Q13516 This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor which is expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. The protein is an essential regulator of ventral neuroectodermal progenitor cell fate. The gene is involved in a chromosomal translocation t(14;21)(q11.2;q22) associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Its chromosomal location is within a region of chromosome 21 which has been suggested to play a role in learning deficits associated with Down syndrome.
p53 7157 K7PPA8
PDGFRA Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor, Alpha Polypeptide; Alpha-Type Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor 2; CD140 Antigen-Like Family Member A; CD140a Antigen; PDGF-R-Alpha; EC; PDGFR-2 5156 P16234 This gene encodes a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer or a heterodimer, composed of both platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta polypeptides. Studies suggest that this gene plays a role in organ development, wound healing, and tumor progression. Mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, somatic and familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and a variety of other cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
PIK3R1 Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase Regulatory Subunit 1; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase 85 KDa Regulatory Subunit Alpha; Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase, Regulatory Subunit 1 (Alpha); Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase Regulatory Subunit Alpha; PtdIns-3-Kinase Regulatory Subunit Alpha; PI3K Regulatory Subunit Alpha; PI3-Kinase Subunit P85-Alpha; GRB1; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Regulatory Subunit, Polypeptide 1 (P85 Alpha) 5295 P27986 Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase phosphorylates the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position. The enzyme comprises a 110 kD catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit of either 85, 55, or 50 kD. This gene encodes the 85 kD regulatory subunit. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays an important role in the metabolic actions of insulin, and a mutation in this gene has been associated with insulin resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in four transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
PRDX2 PRDX2; NKEFB; TDPX1; Peroxiredoxin-2; Natural killer cell-enhancing factor B; NKEF-B; PRP; Thiol-specific antioxidant protein; TSA; Thioredoxin peroxidase 1; Thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase 1 7001 P32119 This gene encodes a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes, which reduce hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides. The encoded protein plays an antioxidant protective role in cells, and it may contribute to the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T-cells. The crystal structure of this protein has been resolved to 2.7 angstroms. This protein prevents hemolytic anemia from oxidative stress by stabilizing hemoglobin, thus making this gene a therapeutic target for patients with hemolytic anemia. This protein may have a proliferative effect and play a role in cancer development or progression. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 5, 6, 10 and 13.
PTEN BZS; DEC; CWS1; GLM2; MHAM; TEP1; MMAC1; PTEN1; 10q23del; PTENbeta 5728 P60484 This gene was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase.
PTPRZ1 PTPZ; HPTPZ; PTP18; PTPRZ; RPTPB; HPTPzeta; PTP-ZETA; RPTPbeta; phosphacan; R-PTP-zeta-2 5803 B4DFE7 This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family. Expression of this gene is restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), and it may be involved in the regulation of specific developmental processes in the CNS. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.
S100A10 S100 Calcium Binding Protein A10; S100 Calcium Binding Protein A10 (Annexin II Ligand, Calpactin I, Light Polypeptide (P11)); Annexin II Tetramer (AIIt) P11 Subunit; Cellular Ligand Of Annexin II; Calpactin I Light Chain; Calpactin-1 Light Chain; ANX2LG; CAL1L; CLP11; P11; S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A10 (Annexin II Ligand, Calpactin I, Light Polypeptide (P11)) 6281 P60903 The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in exocytosis and endocytosis.
S100A6 S100 Calcium Binding Protein A6; Prolactin Receptor-Associated Protein; Growth Factor-Inducible Protein 2A9; Calcyclin; MLN 4; CACY; PRA; S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A6 (Calcyclin) 6277 P06703 The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in stimulation of Ca2+-dependent insulin release, stimulation of prolactin secretion, and exocytosis. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in melanoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SOD2 Superoxide Dismutase 2; Superoxide Dismutase 2, Mitochondrial; EC; Manganese-Containing Superoxide Dismutase; Superoxide Dismutase [Mn], Mitochondrial; Mangano-Superoxide Dismutase; Mn Superoxide Dismutase 6648 P04179 This gene is a member of the iron/manganese superoxide dismutase family. It encodes a mitochondrial protein that forms a homotetramer and binds one manganese ion per subunit. This protein binds to the superoxide byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation and converts them to hydrogen peroxide and diatomic oxygen. Mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic cardiomyopathy (IDC), premature aging, sporadic motor neuron disease, and cancer. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2016]
SPARCL1 SC1; MAST9; PIG33; MAST 9 8404 Q14515 SPARC-like protein 1 (SPARCL1), also known as hevin, is a secreted protein with high structural similarity to SPARC. SPARCLl (secreted protein acidic and rich inCysteine like 1) is a member of SPARC family, a glycoprotein exocrine to secretory stromal cells, a tumor suppressor molecule that inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Abnormal changes occur in some tumors, and too little secretion promotes the occurrence and development of tumors.
SYT1 P65 6857 P21579 Enables several functions, including calmodulin binding activity; phospholipid binding activity; and syntaxin binding activity. Involved in several processes, including positive regulation of dopamine secretion; regulation of vesicle-mediated transport; and response to calcium ion. Located in several cellular components, including excitatory synapse; neuron projection terminus; and secretory vesicle. Is active in hippocampal mossy fiber to CA3 synapse. Is integral component of synaptic vesicle membrane. Biomarker of visual epilepsy. Orthologous to human SYT1 (synaptotagmin 1).
TIMP1 TIMP Metallopeptidase Inhibitor 1; Tissue Inhibitor Of Metalloproteinases 1; Fibroblast Collagenase Inhibitor; Collagenase Inhibitor; TIMP-1; CLGI; TIMP; EPA 7076 P01033 This gene belongs to the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. In addition to its inhibitory role against most of the known MMPs, the encoded protein is able to promote cell proliferation in a wide range of cell types, and may also have an anti-apoptotic function. Transcription of this gene is highly inducible in response to many cytokines and hormones. In addition, the expression from some but not all inactive X chromosomes suggests that this gene inactivation is polymorphic in human females. This gene is located within intron 6 of the synapsin I gene and is transcribed in the opposite direction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TIMP3 TIMP3; Human TIMP3 7078 P35625
TIMP4 TIMP4; TIMP Metallopeptidase Inhibitor 4; Metalloproteinase Inhibitor 4; TIMP-4; Tissue Inhibitor Of Metalloproteinase 4 7079 Q99727 Complexes with metalloproteinases (such as collagenases) and irreversibly inactivates them by binding to their catalytic zinc cofactor. Known to act on MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7 and MMP-9
Tnc GP; JI; TN; HXB; GMEM; TN-C; DFNA56; 150-225 3371 P24821 This gene encodes an extracellular matrix protein with a spatially and temporally restricted tissue distribution. This protein is homohexameric with disulfide-linked subunits, and contains multiple EGF-like and fibronectin type-III domains. It is implicated in guidance of migrating neurons as well as axons during development, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal regeneration.
Tnfsf13 APRIL; CD256; TALL2; ZTNF2; TALL-2; TNLG7B; TRDL-1; UNQ383/PRO715 69583 Q5F2A4 The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This protein is a ligand for TNFRSF17/BCMA, a member of the TNF receptor family. This protein and its receptor are both found to be important for B cell development. In vitro experiments suggested that this protein may be able to induce apoptosis through its interaction with other TNF receptor family proteins such as TNFRSF6/FAS and TNFRSF14/HVEM. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Some transcripts that skip the last exon of the upstream gene (TNFSF12) and continue into the second exon of this gene have been identified; such read-through transcripts are contained in GeneID 407977, TNFSF12-TNFSF13.
TOP2A DNA Topoisomerase II Alpha; Topoisomerase (DNA) II Alpha 170kDa; DNA Topoisomerase II, Alpha Isozyme; EC; TOP2; DNA Topoisomerase (ATP-Hydrolyzing) 7153 P11388 This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, alpha, is localized to chromosome 17 and the beta gene is localized to chromosome 3. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
VEGFA MVCD1; VEGF; VPF 7422 P15692 This gene is a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. It encodes a heparin-binding protein, which exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer. This growth factor induces proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells, and is essential for both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Disruption of this gene in mice resulted in abnormal embryonic blood vessel formation. This gene is upregulated in many known tumors and its expression is correlated with tumor stage and progression. Elevated levels of this protein are found in patients with POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with microvascular complications of diabetes 1 (MVCD1) and atherosclerosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. There is also evidence for alternative translation initiation from upstream non-AUG (CUG) codons resulting in additional isoforms. A recent study showed that a C-terminally extended isoform is produced by use of an alternative in-frame translation termination codon via a stop codon readthrough mechanism, and that this isoform is antiangiogenic. Expression of some isoforms derived from the AUG start codon is regulated by a small upstream open reading frame, which is located within an internal ribosome entry site.
VEGFR2 CD309; FLK1; VEGFR; VEGFR2 3791 A0A024RD88 Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major growth factor for endothelial cells. This gene encodes one of the two receptors of the VEGF. This receptor, known as kinase insert domain receptor, is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase. It functions as the main mediator of VEGF-induced endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, tubular morphogenesis and sprouting. The signalling and trafficking of this receptor are regulated by multiple factors, including Rab GTPase, P2Y purine nucleotide receptor, integrin alphaVbeta3, T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, etc.. Mutations of this gene are implicated in infantile capillary hemangiomas.

Tested Data-Supported Products Targeting Glioma Biomarkers

CAT Product Name Biomarker Assay Image
TAB-020 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Panitumumab) EGFR WB
TAB-253 Anti-Human IL-6 Recombinant Antibody (Olokizumab) IL6 ELISA
TAB-097 Anti-Human IL6 Recombinant Antibody (Sirukumab) IL6 ELISA
TAB-023 Anti-Human CD25 Recombinant Antibody (Daclizumab) IL2RA SDS-PAGE
TAB-710 Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Nimotuzumab) EGFR WB
TAB-040 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Zalutumumab) EGFR ELISA
TAB-119 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Necitumumab) EGFR ELISA
TAB-177 Anti-Human VEGFR-1 Recombinant Antibody (Icrucumab) FLT1 ELISA
TAB-753 Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Imgatuzumab) EGFR SDS-PAGE
TAB-H73 Anti-Human VEGFA Recombinant Antibody (Vanucizumab) VEGFA SDS-PAGE
TAB-011 Anti-Human VEGF Recombinant Antibody (Bevacizumab) VEGFA WB
TAB-012-F(E) Anti-Human VEGF Recombinant Antibody Fab Fragment (Ranibizumab) VEGFA ELISA
TAB-003 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Cetuximab) EGFR ELISA
TAB-H49 Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (Modotuximab) EGFR SDS-PAGE
TAB-128CL Anti-Human CD44 Recombinant Antibody (RG7356) CD44 SDS-PAGE
PABW-088 Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 7A7) EGFR ELISA
PABL-743 Human Anti-VEGFR2 Recombinant Antibody (clone 1121B) VEGFR2 SDS-PAGE
TAB-271MZ Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (TAB-271MZ) EGFR SDS-PAGE
TAB-014MZ-VHH Anti-Human EGFR Recombinant Antibody (OA-cb6) EGFR SDS-PAGE
TAB-095ZJ Anti-Human IgE Therapeutic Single Domain Antibody (39D11) IgE SDS-PAGE
TAB-559MZ Anti-Human NOTCH3 Recombinant Antibody (59R1) NOTCH3 FC
TAB-562MZ Anti-Human NOTCH3 Recombinant Antibody (256A-4) NOTCH3 FC
PABX-052 Recombinant Human Anti-EGFR Antibody (Nimotuzumab) EGFR SDS-PAGE
PABX-052-S (P) Recombinant Human Anti-EGFR Antibody scFv Fragment (Nimotuzumab) EGFR SDS-PAGE
HPAB-0058-CN Human Anti-ENO1 Recombinant Antibody (HPAB-0058-CN) ENO1 SDS-PAGE
HPAB-0048CQ Mouse Anti-TNFSF13 Recombinant Antibody (clone 4540) TNFSF13 DB
HPAB-0727-CN Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone EGFR) EGFR SDS-PAGE
ZG-0010C Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 1B10) EGFR IF
ZG-0011C Mouse Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone M6) EGFR WB
ZG-0074C Mouse Anti-GFAP Recombinant Antibody (clone ABT-GFAP) GFAP IHC
ZG-0075C Mouse Anti-GFAP Recombinant Antibody (clone PT1995) GFAP IHC
ZG-0125C Mouse Anti-TIMP1 Recombinant Antibody (clone PT2236) TIMP1 IHC
ZG-0126C Mouse Anti-TIMP1 Recombinant Antibody (clone ABT-TIMP1) TIMP1 IHC
ZG-0129C Mouse Anti-TOP2A Recombinant Antibody (clone ABT-TOPO) TOP2A IHC
ZG-0130C Mouse Anti-TOP2A Recombinant Antibody (clone PT0247) TOP2A IHC
MOB-0189F Mouse Anti-PDGFRA Recombinant Antibody (clone 7A3) PDGFRA IHC
MOB-0190F Mouse Anti-PDGFRA Recombinant Antibody (clone 4G11) PDGFRA IHC
MOB-0204F Mouse Anti-PIK3R1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 3B7) PIK3R1 WB
MOB-0205F Mouse Anti-PIK3R1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 2D2) PIK3R1 WB
MOB-0231F Mouse Anti-PTEN Recombinant Antibody (clone 2C10) PTEN IHC
MOB-0232F Mouse Anti-PTEN Recombinant Antibody (clone 9E8) PTEN IHC
ZG-0321F Mouse Anti-BRaf Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0321F) BRaf WB
ZG-0328C Mouse Anti-OLIG2 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0328C) OLIG2 WB
ZG-0329C Mouse Anti-OLIG2 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0329C) OLIG2 WB
ZG-0333C Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0333C) CDKN2A WB
ZG-0334C Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0334C) CDKN2A WB
ZG-0335C Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0335C) CDKN2A WB
ZG-0358C Mouse Anti-NAMPT Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0358C) NAMPT WB
ZG-0359C Mouse Anti-NAMPT Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0359C) NAMPT WB
ZG-0061J Mouse Anti-CALD1 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0061J) CALD1 IHC
ZG-0115J Mouse Anti-CD44 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0115J) CD44 IHC
ZG-0127J Mouse Anti-CD63 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0127J) CD63 IHC
ZG-0128J Mouse Anti-CD63 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0128J) CD63 IHC
ZG-0343J Mouse Anti-FGF2 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0343J) FGF2 WB
ZG-0352J Mouse Anti-FLT1 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0352J) FLT1 WB
ZG-0370J Mouse Anti-GADD45A Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0370J) GADD45A WB
ZG-0385J Mouse Anti-GFAP Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0385J) GFAP WB
ZG-0480J Mouse Anti-IGFBP2 Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0480J) IGFBP2 WB
ZG-053R Mouse Anti-BRAF Recombinant Antibody (ZG-053R) BRAF WB
ZG-054R Mouse Anti-BRAF Recombinant Antibody (ZG-054R) BRAF WB
ZG-0684F Mouse Anti-NPDC-1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 16E4) NPDC-1 WB
ZG-0728F Mouse Anti-MMP9 Recombinant Antibody (clone 4A3) MMP9 IHC
ZG-0795F Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (clone DCS50.1) CDKN2A IHC
ZG-0955F Mouse Anti-NCAM2 Recombinant Antibody (clone 123A8) NCAM2 IF
ZG-0572J Rabbit Anti-BRAF Recombinant Antibody (clone 6G3) BRAF IHC
ZG-0590J Rabbit Anti-CD44 Recombinant Antibody (clone 4B7) CD44 WB
ZG-0593J Rabbit Anti-CD63 Recombinant Antibody (clone 2E5) CD63 IHC
ZG-0642J Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 3H9) EGFR WB
ZG-0643J Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 1B8) EGFR WB
ZG-0644J Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 9F10) EGFR WB
ZG-0645J Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone 5D4) EGFR WB
ZG-0571J Rabbit Anti-BRAF Recombinant Antibody (ZG-0571J) BRAF WB
ZG-0136U Human Anti-DLL3 Recombinant Antibody (clone 7B7) DLL3 FC
ZG-0154U Mouse Anti-Timp1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 4A2B1) Timp1 IHC
ZG-0156U Mouse Anti-NES Recombinant Antibody (clone 2C2F7) NES WB
ZG-0173U Mouse Anti-B2M Recombinant Antibody (clone 2D3E5) B2M IHC
ZG-0205U Mouse Anti-TIMP1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 8B4E9) TIMP1 IHC
ZG-0231U Mouse Anti-GFAP Recombinant Antibody (clone 1C91F1) GFAP WB
ZG-0237U Mouse Anti-CD44 Recombinant Antibody (clone 6G2D2) CD44 WB
ZG-0250U Mouse Anti-ENO1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 8H9G12) ENO1 WB
ZG-0251U Mouse Anti-ENO1 Recombinant Antibody (clone 4D11F5) ENO1 WB
ZG-0255U Mouse Anti-CD63 Recombinant Antibody (clone 1H1E11) CD63 WB
ZG-0256U Mouse Anti-CD63 Recombinant Antibody (clone 10F11E6) CD63 WB
ZG-0299U Rabbit Anti-BRAF Recombinant Antibody (clone G11-G) BRAF IHC-P
ZG-0365U Rabbit Anti-EGFR Recombinant Antibody (clone A20-E) EGFR IHC-P
ZG-0376U Rabbit Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (clone R19-D) CDKN2A IHC-P
ZG-0394U Mouse Anti-CDKN2A Recombinant Antibody (clone R15-A) CDKN2A IHC-P
ZG-0467U Rabbit Anti-MGMT Recombinant Antibody (clone 10G7) MGMT WB
ZG-0471U Rabbit Anti-MMP9 Recombinant Antibody (clone 29C11) MMP9 IHC
ZG-0527U Rabbit Anti-Phospho-PTEN (S380) Recombinant Antibody (clone 4D10) PTEN WB
ZG-0575U Rabbit Anti-SOD2 Recombinant Antibody (clone 10F6) SOD2 FC
ZG-0598U Rabbit Anti-TOP2A Recombinant Antibody (clone 5B10) TOP2A WB
VS3-FY128 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-B2M Antibody (clone R01-4H5) B2M WB
VS3-FY129 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-B2M Antibody (clone R07-8B6) B2M WB
VS3-FY181 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-CALD1 Antibody (clone R05-3D2) CALD1 WB
VS3-FY182 Recombinant Mouse Anti-CALD1 Antibody (clone 9B7-7G7-7A1) CALD1 IHC
VS3-FY293 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-CD44 Antibody (clone R08-5J6) CD44 WB
VS3-FY308 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-Cd63 Antibody (clone R06-4G3) Cd63 IHC
VS3-FY309 Recombinant Mouse Anti-CD63 Antibody (clone 8H1-8H6-5G7) CD63 IHC
VS3-FY310 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-CD63 Antibody (clone R08-7C9) CD63 WB
VS3-FY360 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-CDKN2A Antibody (clone R02-6H1) CDKN2A WB
VS3-FY361 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-CDKN2A Antibody (clone R04-8C9) CDKN2A WB
VS3-FY472 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (clone R01-2D3) EGFR WB
VS3-FY473 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (clone R03-5C8) EGFR IHC
VS3-FY475 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (clone R05-2A2) EGFR WB
VS3-FY476 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-EGFR Antibody (clone R08-9H7) EGFR WB
VS3-FY498 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-ENO1 Antibody (clone R09-9H5) ENO1 WB
VS3-FY547 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-FGF2 Antibody (clone R03-9C3) FGF2 WB
VS3-FY587 Recombinant Mouse Anti-GFAP Antibody (clone 2A9-1E3-5G9) GFAP IHC-P
VS3-FY588 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-GFAP Antibody (clone R05-9H9) GFAP WB
VS3-FY625 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-GSN Antibody (clone R06-4B4) GSN WB
VS3-FY721 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-IDH1 Antibody (clone R05-2G5) IDH1 WB
VS3-FY926 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-MGMT Antibody (clone R01-8B1) MGMT WB
VS3-FY1026 Recombinant Mouse Anti-NEFL Antibody (clone 2D7-6C10-10B2) NEFL IHC-P
VS3-FY1181 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-PRDX2 Antibody (clone R02-1G5) PRDX2 WB
VS3-FY1297 Recombinant Mouse Anti-S100A6 Antibody (clone 4B1-8B10-8D8) S100A6 IHC-P
VS3-FY1298 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-S100A6 Antibody (clone R01-8A4) S100A6 ICC
VS3-FY1455 Recombinant Mouse Anti-TIMP1 Antibody (clone 5H5-6G1-2E1) TIMP1 IHC-P
VS3-FY1471 Recombinant Mouse Anti-TOP2A Antibody (clone 1D2-2H6-7D1) TOP2A IHC-P
VS3-FY1543 Recombinant Rabbit Anti-VEGFA Antibody (clone R04-6D7) VEGFA WB
  1. erence Whitfield, Benjamin T., and Jason T. Huse. "Classification of adult‐type diffuse gliomas: Impact of the World Health Organization 2021 update." Brain Pathology 32.4 (2022): e13062.

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