The minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) family is a group of proteins that play an important role in the cell cycle, originally found in yeast, and subsequently confirmed to be present in eukaryotic cell organisms. Up to now, the MCM family has found 8 members, including MCM2, MCM3, MCM4, MCM5, MCM6, MCM7, MCM8, and MCM9, which have similar structures and functions, participate in DNA replication and extension, and ensure DNA in each cell cycle to maintain the stability of the gene. Studies have shown that the mRNA level of MCM7 is consistent with the cell cycle, which can be significantly detected in the G1 and S phases, and is closely related to DNA replication initiation and elongation, cell proliferation and malignant tumor formation.
The MCM7 protein center has a conserved region consisting of 200 amino acid residues, a DNA-dependent ATPase motif, which plays a crucial role in the ATPase and DNA unwinding activity of MCM4/6/7. In the early G1, based on the initial recognition complex, the MCM2-7 complex interacts with the cell division cycle 6, CDC6 and CDC10-dependent transcription factor 1 to form a pre-replication complex. Pre-RC), then this complex is activated by CDC7/DBF kinase and activates MCM, allowing MCM4/6/7 to bind to CDC45 to act as a helicase, thereby initiating DNA replication. In the S phase, the pre-replication complex initiates replication initiation by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) regulation, and the DNA unwinds under MCM4/6/7 unwinding and forms a bidirectional replication fork. The unzipped DNA activates ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ATM and Rad3 related), while MCM2 and MCM3 can be directly phosphorylated by ATM and ATR under genotoxic stress from the surface inhibition DNA replication, while passing the cell cycle Checkpoint kinase 1/2 (Chk1/Chk2) and activating CDK2/cyclin E and CDC7/DBF4 to inhibit the replication and DNA synthesis, thereby precisely regulating the replication process and ensuring each cell cycle. DNA replication is only done once. Therefore, cell cycle regulation of MCM7 has a very close relationship with the formation of malignant tumors, and can be used as a reliable marker of cell proliferation.
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