Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by islet β cells. It is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the human body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood into the liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells. In these tissues, the absorbed glucose is converted to glycogen by glycogen, or to fat (triglycerides) by fat-forming products, or both in the liver. High concentrations of insulin in the blood strongly inhibit the production and secretion of glucose in the liver. Circulating insulin also affects protein synthesis in a variety of tissues. Therefore, it is an anabolic hormone that can promote the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules in the cell. Low insulin levels in the blood have the opposite effect by promoting extensive catabolism, especially the catabolism of body fat.
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