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This gene encodes a serum protein found in association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chain on the surface of nearly all nucleated cells. The protein has a predominantly beta-pleated sheet structure that can form amyloid fibrils in some pathological conditions. The encoded antimicrobial protein displays antibacterial activity in amniotic fluid. A mutation in this gene has been shown to result in hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia.B2M (Beta-2-Microglobulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with B2M include Immunodeficiency 43 and Amyloidosis, Familial Visceral. Among its related pathways are Cytokine Signaling in Immune system and Innate Immune System. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding.Component of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system. Exogenously applied M.tuberculosis EsxA or EsxA-EsxB (or EsxA expressed in host) binds B2M and decreases its export to the cell surface (total protein levels do not change), probably leading to defects in class I antigen presentation (PubMed:25356553).
Protein class

Cancer-related genes, Disease related genes, Human disease related genes, Plasma proteins, Potential drug targets, Transporters

Predicted location


Single cell type specificity

Cell type enhanced (monocytes, NK-cells)

Immune cell specificity

Low immune cell specificity

Cell line specificity

Low cell line specificity


Heterodimer of an alpha chain and a beta chain. Beta-2-microglobulin is the beta-chain of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Polymers of beta 2-microglobulin can be found in tissues from patients on long-term hemodialysis. B2M alone (not in complex with HLA-I) interacts with M.tuberculosis EsxA (ESAT-6) and an EsxA-EsxB (CFP-10) complex; the tripartite complex can be detected in the host endoplasmic reticulum (PubMed:25356553). The B2M-EsxA complex can be detected in patients with pleural tuberculosis and is stable from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and in the presence of 2M NaCl (PubMed:25356553). Forms a heterotrimer with HLA-E and a self- or a foreign peptide (PubMed:9427624). Forms a heterotrimer with HLA-G and a self-peptide (PubMed:17056715). Forms a heterotrimer with HLA-F and a self-peptide (PubMed:10605026). Forms a heterotrimer with MR1 and a metabolite antigen.

More Types Infomation

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