Amphetamine addiction, a type of stimulant use disorder, occurs when you need the drug to function daily. If you are addicted to amphetamines, you may not complete or perform works as well, not eat and lose a lot of weight, have severe dental problems, find it difficult to stop utilizing amphetamines. Amphetamines (shown in Fig.1) are the type of synthetic drug that similarly stimulates the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulants increase CNS activity and lead to elevated feelings of alertness, attention, and energy. These drugs also increase the heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure.
Figure.1 Overview of amphetamine addiction pathways
They are prescribed for the legitimate use in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy and, rarely, in cases of extreme obesity. Although their status as legal and are strictly controlled prescription substances, they are illicitly abused for their potent stimulant effects that are similar to those of cocaine. Users of these amphetamine drugs need to be noticed that dependence and addiction are potential risks, even if taking them therapeutically. These risks will obviously increase while the drug is abused, as the typical medical oversight that occurs among those taking it for the medical needs is absent. Dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine are the two main types of amphetamines. However, they are sometimes sold illegally. Both prescribed and street amphetamines can be misused and cause use disorders. Methamphetamine is the most commonly misused amphetamine, such as Ritalin.
There are many methods of recognizing amphetamine addiction, including physical and mental symptoms and changes in behavior; increased heart rate and blood pressure; decreased appetite and weight loss; insomnia; digestive upset; mood swings; aggression; paranoia and anxiety; visual, auditory, or tactile hallucinations; inability to keep up with work, school, or home responsibilities; much of the person’s time spent seeking or using the drug; missing pills from a prescription; changes in groups of friends and difficulties with relationships and loss of interest in previous activities.
The first step to treatment is detoxification. Amphetamine detox is to taper the usage and remove the drug from the body day by day. Detox may last from a few hours to several days. This varies with different individuals, as people’s addiction levels differ according to individual history, usage dosages, body mass index, metabolism and other personal factors. In order to achieve this, patients have to undergo the withdrawal. Withdrawal is a common reaction to the absence of the drug in the body. Since the brain has changed its structure to recognize amphetamine as critical to its functioning, it triggers uncomfortable reactions when you don’t use it. Withdrawal can start from three to twelve hours or more, depending on the level of addiction. It is a critical part of detoxification and complete recovery cannot occur without withdrawal. After detoxification, rehabilitation therapy is the next step of treatment. If the addiction level is high, it is more suitable to check into an inpatient rehab facility. In contrast, if you are a low level of addiction on amphetamines, an outpatient rehab service is suitable; this also allows you to work or in school as normal. Within this treatment, specialists have talks with patients to identify the root cause of drug abuse. Subsequently, therapy options include the cognitive behavioral therapy, the cognitive behavioral play, the aversion therapy, and meditation therapy.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.